Thursday, 17 November 2016

SHORT ANSWERS - CULTURE AND IMPERIALISM BY EDWARD SAID

CULTURE AND IMPERIALISM 
 BY EDWARD SAID

(i) Who is Edward Said?
Ans. Edward Wadie Said (1 November 1935 - 25 September 2003) was Palestinian American literary theorist and public intellectual who helped found the critical-theory field of post-colonialism. 
(ii) Why is Edward Said famous?
Ans. As a cultural critic, Edward Said is famous for his book "Orientalism", one of the most influential scholarly books of the 20th century. He is also famous as the founder of the academic field of postcolonial studies. 
(iii) What are the nicknames of Edward Said?
Ans. The full name of Edward Said is "Edward Wadie Said". He has two famous nicknames; Ed Wadie and Ed Said
(iv) What is the source of 'Culture and Imperialism'?
Ans. "Culture and Imperialism" is indebted to Grasmsci in several respects, even if less obviously than The World, the Text and the Critic. Grasmsci unfinished essay on the southern question is one of Said's points of reference as a work that sets the stage for the critical attention given in the Prison Notebooks to the "territorial, spatial and geographical foundations of life."
(v) What is the main focus of Edward Said in 'Introduction to Culture and Imperialism'?
Ans. The main focus of Edward Said in "Introduction to Culture and Imperialism" is the modern Western empires of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. He wants to describe a more general pattern of relationships between the modern metropolitan west and its overseas territories. His aim is to set works of art of the imperialist and post-colonial eras into their historical context. 
(vi) When was 'Culture and Imperialism' published?
Ans.  "Culture and Imperialism" is a collection of essays by Edward Said published in 1993. It followed his highly influential "Orientalism", published in 1978. 
(vii) What is the connection between 'Culture and Imperialism' and 'Orientalism'?
Ans. "Culture and Imperialism" is a collection of essays by Edward Said published in 1993. Said attempts to trace the connection between imperialism and culture in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. It followed his highly influential "Orientalism", published in 1978. Said conceived of "Culture and Imperialism" as an attempt to "expand the argument" of "Orientalism".
(viii) What are different attitudes towards culture according to Edward Said?
Ans. According to Edward there are two types of attitudes towards culture. One that considers culture as a concept that includes refining and elevating element, each society's reservoir of best that has been known and thought. The other is the aggressive, protectionist attitude viewing culture as a source of identity that differentiates between 'us' and 'them', and power with which we can combat the influences of the foreign cultures. 
(ix) What is imperialism?
Ans. Imperialism is a type of advocacy of Empire. It is a policy of extending a country's power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means. Edward Said uses the term more broadly to describe any system of domination and subordination organized with an imperial center and periphery. 
(x) What damages has imperialism caused in the past?
Ans. Imperialism has resulted the mixture of cultures and identities on a world scale. For centuries the foreign imperialists have behaved in the underdeveloped world like nothing more than criminals. U.S. military intervention in the Third World has occurred every year between 1945 and 1967.
(xi) What is the relationship between culture and imperialism of the West?
Ans. The relationship between culture and imperialism of the West is direct and dynamic.  The culture is not free from prejudices; it is also not objective and neutral. The vocabulary of classic 19th century imperial culture - "inferior", "subject races", "subordinate peoples", "dependency", and "authority" - recurred and repeated in the great writings of British and French - is a part of the story of relationship between culture and imperialism. 
(xii) What does Edward Said mean by civilization?
Ans. Civilization means the betterment of ways of living, making Nature bend to fulfill the needs of humankind. It also includes organizing societies into politically well-defined groups working collectively for improved conditions of life in matter of food, dress, communication, and so on. 
(xiii) What is colonialism?
Ans. Colonialism is the establishment of a colony in one territory by a political power from another territory, and the subsequent maintenance, expansion, and exploitation of that colony. 
(xiv) What is post colonialism?
Ans. Post-colonialism is an academic discipline featuring methods of intellectual discourse that analyze, explain, and respond to the cultural legacies of colonialism and imperialism. Post-colonialism in literature includes the study of theory and literature as it relates to the colonizer-colonized experience. 
(xv) What are literary illusions?
Ans. A literary illusion is a brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literary or political significance. It does not describe in detail the person or thing to which it refers. For example, "Don't act like a Romeo in front of her." - "Romeo" is a reference to Shakespeare's Romeo, a passionate lover of Juliet, in "Romeo and Juliet."

Wednesday, 16 November 2016

SHORT ANSWERS - GENERAL GORDON BY LYTTON STRACHEY

GENERAL GORDON BY STRACHEY

(i) In his preface, what does Strachey claim are his goals in writing 'Eminent Victorians'?
Ans. Strachey says that he has attempted to present some Victorian visions to the modern eye. His choice has been determined by simple motives of convenience and of art. His purpose is to illustrate rather than to explain. He claims a brevity which excludes everything that is redundant and nothing that is significant. 
(ii) What are the contents of 'Eminent Victorians'?
Ans. "Eminent Victorians" is a book by Lytton Strachey, first published in 1918 and consisting of four leading figures from the Victorian era. These figures are: Cardinal Manning, Florence Nightingale, Thomas Arnold, and General Gordon.
(iii) What are Strachey's targets of irony?
Ans. Strachey is best known for his ironic attitude towards the subject of his biographical studies. His targets of irony are evangelicalism, liberalism, humanitarianism, education and imperialism. He is best known for "Eminent Victorians". He established the ironical writing of biography as a literary art. 
(iv) Who was General Gordon?
Ans. General Gordon (1833 - 1885) was a British army officer and administrator. He became a national hero for his exploits  in China and his ill-fated defense of Khartoum against Sudanese rebels. 
(v) When and where was General Gordon born?
Ans. General Gordon was born on January 28, 1833 at Woolwich in London - one of 11 children, 5 girls and 6 boys in a closely-knit and very happy family of a Royal Artillery officer. 
(vi) Why is General Gordon always studying his Bible?
Ans. General Gordon's reading was confined almost entirely to the Bible; but the Bible he read and re-read with an untiring, an unending assiduity. There, he was convinced, all truth was to be found; and he was equally convinced that he could find it. 
(vii) What is the physical appearance of General Gordon?
Ans. Gordon's unassuming figure, short and slight, with its half-gliding, half-tripping motion, gave him a boyish aspect, which contrasted, oddly, but not unpleasantly, with the touch of grey on his hair and whiskers. There was the same contract between the sun-burnt brick-red complexion - the hue of the seasoned traveller - and the large blue eyes, with their look of almost childish sincerity. 
(viii) What services did General Gordon render for Britain?
Ans. Gordon saw action in the Crimean War as an officer in the British Army. He was anxious to fight in the Crimea. He was put to work in the Siege of Sevastopol and took part in the assault of the Redan from 10 June to 8 September. 
(ix) What services did General Gordon render for China?
Ans. In 1860 General Gordon volunteered to serve in China. In 1863 he entered Chinese service to suppress the Taiping rebellion. For his exploits in China, Gordon became a national hero. Nanjing's fall in July 1864 marked the end of one of the greatest civil wars in world history. 
(x) Why was General Gordon given the nickname 'Chinese'?
Ans. General Gordon made his military reputation in China, where he was placed in command of the "Ever Victorious Army", a force of Chinese soldiers led by European officers. In the early 1860, Gordon and his men were instrumental in putting down the Taiping Rebellion, regularly defeating much larger forces. For these accomplishments, he was given the nickname "Chinese Gordon". 
(xi) What services did General Gordon render with the Khedive?
Ans. In 1873 the Khedive Ismail of Egypt appointed Gordon governor of the province of Equatoria in the Sudan. Gordon mapped the upper Nile River and established a line of stations along the river. He established his ascendancy over this vast area, crushing rebellions and suppressing the slave trade. 
(xii) What services did General Gordon perform as the governor general of Sudan?
Ans. As the governor general of Sudan, Gordon rendered many services. He mapped the upper Nile River and established a line of stations along the river. He established his ascendancy over this vast area, crushing rebellions and suppressing the slave trade. 
(xiii) Why was General Gordon sent to Khartoum?
Ans. In 1884 Gordon was sent to  Khartoum in Sudan by the British government to evacuate Egyptian forces from Khartoum.
(xiv) When and why did General Gordon return to Europe?
Ans. In 1880, ill health forced General Gordon to resign his post of governor general of Sudan and return to England. 
(xv) How did General Gordon meet his death?
Ans. In 1884 Gordon was again sent to the Sudan by the British government to evacuate Egyptian forces from Khartoum. Khartoum came under siege a month later, and on January 26, 1885, the Mahdists broke into the city and killed General Gordon at the Governor-General palace about an hour before dawn. The manner of his death is uncertain.

Monday, 14 November 2016

SHORT ANSWERS - JOHN ASHBERY

SHORT ANSWERS - JOHN ASHBERY

(i) What are the basic themes in the poetry of John Ashbery?
Ans. John Ashbery's poetry is mainly about the play and process of the mind interacting with the world. He is also concerned with the process of artistic creation and appreciation. His themes are numerous since the mind perceiving subjects is numerous. Other themes include, love, loss, alienation, the everyday, painting, art, emotions, home eroticism, and emotions etc.
(ii) What are the major elements of modernity in John Ashbery's Poetry?
Ans. John Ashbery is chiefly known for the artistic perfection of his poetry. Stream of consciousness, impressionism, expressionism, subjectivity, symbolism, simple language and philosophical touch are the major elements of modernity in Jonh Ashbery's poetry.
(iii) What is the symbolic significance of the title 'Melodic Trains'?
Ans. The title "Melodic Trains" suggests that it is about a train journey. It sets a tone of harmony and concord. The trains are melodic not because the round of the wheels is so rhythmic, but because Ashbery sees all passengers as his brothers. There is also the rhythm of the thought process.
(iv) What is the main theme of 'Melodic Trains'?
Ans. The main theme of "Melodic Trains" by John Ashbery is that life is a perpetual journey into the unconscious regions of human mind, which brings up a new perspective each time an activity is stirred.
(v) What are the symbolic elements in 'Melodic Trains'?
Ans. Train, enameled fingernails of the little girl, toy wristwatch of the little girl, stations, passengers at stations, taxi, and tower of Pisa are the major symbolic elements in "Melodic Trains".
(vi) How is journey of train similar to journey of mind? (Melodic Trains)
Ans. The journey in real train is paralleled by a symbolic train of thoughts and melodies, poetic ideas running through the mind. Life is a perpetual journey into the unconscious regions of human mind, which brings up a new station each time an activity is stirred.
(vii) What do the stations of train symbolize in 'Melodic Trains'?
Ans. Stations symbolize a temporary stopover. They are a midpoint between past and future of our lives. They give us a sense of transition, of being between worlds, between experiences. The human gathering at stations is like chorus singing about various stages of the journey of life.
(viii) What is the main theme of the poem 'The Painter'?
Ans. The main theme of the poem "The Painter" by John Ashbery is that innovator, modern and creative artists are crucified by the traditional and conventional people.
(ix) How does Ashbery define art in 'The Painter'?
Ans. Ashbery's conception of art in "The Painter" is like that of a child's prayer which is a direct relationship between the artist and the art like that of a prayee to God. He says that objective representation of reality must be the basis of art. Soul, spirit, vitality of life, and the essence of reality should be the features of art.
(x) What is Ashbery's wish in 'The Painter'?
Ans. Ashbery was himself a painter. In this poem, he wishes to paint an abstract idea. He wants artistic perfection of his painting. Canvas is a symbol of life, he wants to paint colours of truth on it, which is beyond his reach.
(xi) What are the major symbols in 'The Painter'?
Ans. "The Painter" is a highly symbolic poem. It is packed with symbols that it seems like an allegory. The major symbols are; the sea, the buildings, the painter and canvas.
(xii) What does the sea symbolize in 'The Painter'?
Ans. The sea in "The Painter" is a symbol of creativity and the unexplored depths of human consciousness. It also resents the vitality and essence or life, with has long been ignored.
(xiii) Why does the poet use the image of Tower of Pisa in 'Melodic Trains'?
Ans. The poet uses the image of Tower of Pisa to reflect the modern man's psychological complexities.
(xiv) Trace political and religious allegory in 'The Painter'?
Ans. The pathetic state of the painter lends political and religious interpretations of the poem. The line "Try using the brush for a means to an end" shows the selfishness of the political gains. The word 'crucify' has religious connotation so the poem becomes a religious allegory too.
(xv) Why does the painter not paint anything on the canvas? 
Ans. The poem presents the situation of an artist who wants to paint the sea. He wants that "nature, not art, might usurp the canvas". The artist is unable to present reality and so "there was never any paint on the canvas".

Sunday, 13 November 2016

SHORT ANSWERS - WALT WHITMAN

SHORT ANSWERS - WALT WHITMAN

(i) What is uniquely American about Whitman's poetry?
Ans. Whitman wrote about America, its people, and its landscape in expansive free-verse form. He established a uniquely American voice in poetry, entirely separate from the Anglophile-inspired reverence for English poetic styles and forms. Whitman's open-armed, free-verse celebrations of America's vastness of resources, opportunities, people, and possibilities, is distinctly American verse.
(ii) What, in Whitman's view, is the function of poetry?
Ans. Whitman, like Poe and Coleridge, is mystic and transcendental in his theory of poetry. Unlike them, he is an arch-rebel in poetic practice. Under the influence of the Romantic movement in literature and art, Whitman held the theory that the chief function of the poet was to express his own personality in his verse. Whitman often casts himself as the main character in his poems.
(iii) Describe Whitman's conception of the soul and the body.
Ans. The soul and the body are inextricably linked for Whitman. While the soul is the ultimate repository of the self, and the connection between souls is the highest order of relating, the body is the vessel that allows the soul to experience the world. Therefore the body is just as important.
(iv) What kinds of structures does Whitman use in his poetry?
Ans. Two of the most important structures in Whitman's poetry are the list and the anecdote. He avoids structures like rhyme because he wants to show that his is a truly American poetry, one that is fresh and new, and not indebted to previous poets from other countries.
(v) What kind of vocabulary does Whitman use in his poetry?
Ans. Whitman's vocabulary borrows from these disciplines; anatomy, astronomy, carpentry and construction, military and war terms, nautical terms and terms related to the sea, business and professions, flora and fauna of America.
(vi) What are major themes in Whitman's poetry?
Ans. Democracy as a way of life, the cycle of growth and death, the beauty of the individual, democratic nature of poetry, the body and soul, the natural world, war, and eroticism are the major themes of Whitman's poetry.
(vii) What do plants symbolize in Whitman's poetry?
Ans. Throughout Whitman's poetry, plant life symbolize both growth and multiplicity. Rapid, regular plant growth also stands in for the rapid, regular expansion of the population of the United States.
(viii) What is the theme of 'There was a Child Went Forth'?
Ans. This poem expresses the poet's identification of his consciousness with all objects and forms, and the list of things which he himself identifies with is large and comprehensive and is a good example of Whitman's catalogs. The continual process of becoming is at the heart of the poem.
(ix) What is the theme of 'I Saw in Louisiana a Live-Oak Growing'?
Ans. Even though we may have people in our lives, they can always be taken away. Physical love is as elementary as the oak tree itself, but its luxuriant growth is an organic metaphor for the development of manly love in the region of the spirit.
(x) What are the major themes of 'One's-Self I Sing'?
Ans. The poem delves into the themes of the self, the all-encompassing "I", sexuality, democracy, the human body, and what it means to live in the modern world.
(xi) What is the theme of 'Poets to Come'?
Ans. Whitman's consciousness of the inadequacy of language to express the full extent of his thought is revealed in this poem. His expectation that the future poets will interpret his work for posterity clearly shows that he views the poet as a seer and a builder of the bridge spanning time.
(xii) What is the theme of 'O Captain! My Captain!'?
Ans. The primary theme of the poem is masculine love; the speaker loves his captain as his own father. Other themes are admiration, patriotism and suffering.
(xiii) What is the theme of 'To a Stranger'?
Ans. The speaker uses this poem as a silent address to a stranger passing by him on the street. The relationship between body and soul is the major theme of the poem. Whitman also invokes the theme of democratic self by leaving the stranger's gender indeterminate.
(xiv) What is the theme of 'Shut Not Your Doors'?
Ans. In this poem, Whitman is by far identifying himself as a writer of writers. He puts himself on a soap box and pats himself on the back. This poem is a good way to express a writer's feelings about his own writings.
(xv) What is the theme of 'The Carols'? 
Ans. In this poem the speaker describes various "carols" that arise from different figures in the American working class as people go about their work. The theme of the poem is individuality, productivity and happiness in one's station in life. The poem also exemplifies the theme of musicality in Whitman's poetry.

Friday, 11 November 2016

SHORT ANSWERS - MOURNING BECOMES ELECTRA BY EUGENE O'NEILL

SHORT ANSWERS 
MOURNING BECOMES ELECTRA BY EUGENE O'NEILL

Answer the following questions. 
(i) What is trilogy?
Ans. Trilogy is a group of three literary works that together compose a larger narrative. Early types of trilogy resulted from the common practice of Athenian playwrights, who would submit tragedies as groups of three plays for performance in the Dionysia. Examples include the Oresteia of Aeschylus and Sophocles' trilogy of Oedipus Rex, Antigone, and Oedipus at Colona. 
(ii) In what ways does mourning become Electra?
Ans. "Mourning" means the expression of sorrow for someone's death. The Mannon family is marred with deaths. Whereas "Electra" is the name of the sister of Orestes in Aeschylus's tragedy "The Oresteia", and that the play was all about the destruction of a particular family. So "Electra" refers to Lavinia in the play who is left alone after the destruction of her family.  
(iii) What is the historical context of 'Mourning Becomes Electra'?
Ans. Born in 1888, Eugene O'Neill's life spanned some of the most important events of contemporary history. The issues related to democracy and materialism figure prominently in his plays. "Mourning Becomes Electra" explore the problems confronting American society, particularly rampant materialism, loss of individuality, lack of spiritual values, incest, sin and guilt. 
(iv) Why has O'Neil used myth and legend as symbols in his play?
Ans.  O'Neil has used myth and legend as symbols in his play "Mourning Becomes Electra" to give a broad and universal significance to his theme. He has used the Electra legend to achieve an approximation to the Greek sense of fate, such as would appeal to modern audiences. 
(v) How does O'Neil symbolize hair and eyes in 'Mourning Becomes Electra'?
Ans. If the mask like faces in "Mourning Becomes Electra" establish the puritan male tradition, the woman's hair and eyes symbolize the opposing 'pagan' one. The richness of the hair of Christine and Lavinia points to primitive and vigorous sensuality. The eyes of the women link them with the islands. 
(vi) What is the significance of the 'Blessed Islands'?
Ans. O'Neill has interwoven the "Blessed Islands" in "Mourning Becomes Electra" -- influenced by Melville's Typee -- as the motif of an unattainable pipe-dream. The Blessed Islands show the desire for love, harmony, and sexual freedom of all the protagonists in the play. They are the counterpart of puritanism and civilization. However, these islands do not really offer an escape. 
(vii) What is the meaning of theme song 'Shenandoah'?
Ans. 'Shenandoah' is a traditional American folk song. It is the theme song in the play "Mourning Becomes Electra". It occurs six times in the trilogy. The chanty may be regarded as an equivalent of the choral songs in Greek tragedy. Some believe that the song refers to the river of the same name while others suggest that it is of Native American origin, for it tells the tale of Sally, the daughter of the Indian Chief Shenandoah. 
(viii) Who are the haunted in 'Mourning Becomes Electra'?
Ans. Almost all the characters are the haunted. They are emotionally death, the house is a tomb. Death seems to be haunting everybody in the Mannon family, and it catches up to all of them one way or another. Ezra Mannon and Adam Brant are murdered. Christine and Orin commit suicide. Lavinia decides to punish herself by living alone. 
(ix) Why are the Mannons driven to their self destructive behaviour?
Ans. The Mannons  in "Mourning Becomes Electra" are driven to their self-destructive behaviour by inner needs, forbidden love, and compulsions they can neither understand nor control. 
(x) Why do every Mannon in 'Mourning Becomes Electra' seek escape from the real world?
Ans. All Mannons in "Mourning Becomes Electra" seek refuge and escape from the harsh realities of the real world by dreaming of starting a new life on a South Pacific Island. They want to escape from their inner needs, forbidden love, and compulsions they can neither understand nor control.  
(xi) Why does Lavinia say, 'I hate love!'?
Ans. Lavinia is a queer girl who was not given any attention by her mother during her childhood. Now she is turned indifferent to the social, ethical and moral behaviour of the human mind. When Peter asks her if Orin really loves his sister Hazel, she simply replies: "I hate love!" Lavinia lives up to this statement throughout the play. 
(xii) What kind of relationship does Lavinia have with her mother?
Ans. The relationship between Lavinia and her mother Christine is a complete lack of understanding. Between the mother and daughter, there is a competition for the love of Christine's son/Lavinia's brother, Orin. Lavinia sees Christine's new love as a betrayed of her mother's relationship with her father. She also harbors a deep desire for revenge upon her mother for killing her father. 
(xiii) Why does Lavinia hate her mother?
Ans. Lavinia hates her mother for many reasons. Firstly, she was not given any attention by her mother during her childhood. Secondly, she is extremely possessive for her father. Thirdly, she hates her for her adulterous acts in New York with Adam. Above all, she abhors her mother because she has poisoned her father. 
(xiv) Why does Lavinia hate Adam?
Ans. Lavinia is a puritan moralist in her attitude towards Christine and Adam. She hates Adam on two counts. Firstly, she considers that he is the son of a low nurse. Secondly, she hates him for his adulterous acts in New York with her mother, Christine.
(xv) Why is Lavinia instead of committing suicide prepared to meet her punishment by living a solitary life?
Ans. Convinced that the Mannon blood is tainted with evil, Lavinia resolves to spend the rest of her days atoning for her guild in the Mannon house. Since there is no one left to punish her, she decides to punish herself by living alone in the old house with the ghosts of her ancestors.

Sunday, 30 October 2016

SHORT ANSWERS - FRANCIS BACON ESSAYS

SHORT ANSWERS - BACON ESSAYS

Answer the following questions. 
(i) Who was Bacon and what did he do?
Ans. Francis Bacon was born on 22 January 1561 in London. He was the son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, keeper of the great seal of Elizabeth I. Bacon studied at Cambridge University and at Gray's Inn and became a member of parliament in 1584. He served as attorney general and Lord Chancellor of England during the Renaissance, but is is best know for his contributions to philosophy.
(ii) What is your opinion about Bacon in the light of his character sketch?
Ans. Bacon is "One of those complex and contradictory natures which are the despair of the biographer" (Long). Bacon had a dual personality. He was a mental giant but a moral dwarf. Pope very aptly describes him, "The wisest, brightest, meanest of mankind." I agree with J.F. Selby's statement: "He had a great brain; not a great soul."
(iii) What do the essays of Bacon tell about his age?
Ans. The essays of Bacon tell a lot about his age, Renaissance. These tell that this age has a love for classical learning and natural beauty. It has the spirit of inquiry, individualism and nationalism. It has pragmatic spirit, reformist zeal and Machiavellian approach to life.
(iv) What is aphorism?
Ans. Aphorism is a statement of truth or opinion expressed in a concise and witty manner. The term is often applied to philosophical, moral and literary principles. For example, "Studies serve for delight, for ornament and for ability". (Of Studies by Bacon)
(v) Why Bacon is called modern?
Ans. Comparing Bacon with his predecessors, Sidney, Lyly and Acham, it will be seen how widely he departs from the prolix methods of the day. He has evolved such a prose style which proves that English can be used as a medium of expression. Most of the lines from his essays have always been acclaimed as immortal quotes. That is why he is called modern.
(vi) Why is Bacon's style aphoristic?
Ans. Bacon's style is aphoristic because there is a terseness of expression and an epigrammatic brevity in his style. His sentences are brief, rapid and forceful. Indeed, his essays are replete the aphorism. For example, "A lie faces God and shrinks from man."/"Suspicions among thoughts are like bats among birds."
(vii) Why is Bacon's style different?
Ans. Comparing Bacon with his predecessors, Sidney, Lyly and Acham, it will be seen how widely he departs from the prolix methods of the day. He has evolved such a prose style which proves that English can be used as a medium of expression. Most of the lines from his essays have been acclaimed as immortal quotes. That is why Bacon's style is different.
(viii) Is Bacon's precision his wisdom?
Ans. Precision is the quality, condition, or fact of being exact, accurate and clear. Precision is the hallmark of good prose style not wisdom. Bacon's wisdom is, in fact, his understanding of the affairs of the world. However, precision makes Bacon's wisdom easy to understand for readers.
(ix) What do Bacon's essays teach?
Ans. Bacon's essays teach us worldly wisdom. Worldly wisdom means the kind of wisdom that is necessary for achieving worldly success. These teach us the art of how to get on this world, how to become rich and prosperous, how to rise to high positions, how to exercise one's authority and power so as to attain good results, how to gain influence, etc.
(x) Point out the Renaissance elements in Bacon's essays.
Ans. Pragmatical spirit, the Machiavellian approach to life, classical learning, love of beauty and sensuousness, spirit of humanism, curiosity and love of travel, wealth of metaphor and analogy, love of learning, emphasis on ethics and morality, and love of exploration are the Renaissance elements in Bacon's essays.
(xi) Bacon's essays are full of wisdom. How?
Ans. Bacon is a man of Renaissance and man is the subject of his essays. He is a philosopher, utilitarian and moralist. Therefore, "Beyond any other book of the same size in any literature they are loaded with the ripest wisdom of experience." (Hudson)
(xii) Bacon's style is pithy. How?
Ans. A pithy style is one that is brief, terse and vigorously expressive. Bacon is a master of pithy sentences in his essays. He ignores the unnecessary conceits and over crowded imagery of the Enthusiast. However, every sentence in his essays is pregnant with meaning and is capable of being expanded into several sentences. For example, "A mixture of a lie doeth ever add pleasure.".
(xiii) Why is Bacon called a worldly moralist?
Ans. Bacon is called a worldly moralist because his essays teach us worldly wisdom. Worldly wisdom means the kind of wisdom that is necessary for achieving worldly success. He teaches us the art of how to get on this world, how to become rich and prosperous, how to rise to high positions, how to exercise one's authority and power, and how to gain influence, etc.
(xiv) How are Bacon's essay an expression of brevity?
Ans. Brevity is to describe something great with the use of few words. Bacon possessed a remarkable ability to express deep weighty and profound thoughts with an economy of language. Most of his sentences can be expanded into whole paragraphs, and can be read like proverbs, maxims or aphorisms. For example, "A mixture of a lie doeth ever add pleasure".
(xv) What is the major difference between Russell's and Bacon's prose style? 
Ans. Bacon exhibits a stuffy style of writing whereas as Russell exhibits a plain and tough style of writing. Bacon's style has low frequency words, third person pronouns, Greek and Latin words, and complex sentences whereas Russell's style has high frequency words, first person pronouns, Anglo-Saxon words and simple sentences.

Wednesday, 26 October 2016

SHORT ANSWERS - UNPOPULAR ESSAYS BY BERTRAND RUSSELL

UNPOPULAR ESSAYS BY RUSSELL

Answer the following questions.
(i) Write the names of contents of 'Unpopular Essays' by Russell.
Ans. There are 12 contents of "Unpopular Essays" which are; Philosophy and Politics, Philosophy of Laymen, The Future of Mankind, Philosophy's Ulterior Motives, The Superior Virtue of the Oppressed, On Being Modern Minded, An Outline of Intellectual Rubbish, The Functions of a Teacher, Ideas that have Helped Mankind, Ideas that have Harmed Mankind, Eminent Men I have Known, and Obituary. 
(ii) Is Russell's 'Unpopular Essays' about unpopularity?
Ans.  The book called 'Unpopular Essays' is not about unpopularity. It is a collection of very popular essays on various subjects. There are several sentences in this book, says Russell, which some unsually stupid children of the age of ten may find difficult to understand. That being so, he could not claim the essays would be popular, and so, if not popular, then, unpopular. 
(iii) Why are Russell's essays so difficult?
Ans. The subject matter of Russell's essays is difficult for average readers. Russell's style appeals mainly to intellects and very little to feelings or emotions. He uses words simply as tools, to convey his meaning plain and effective and not to produce any special effects. Moreover, there is no passion in his style; it is somewhat cold. That's why Russell's essays are so difficult. 
(iv) Why is Russell so complicated?
Ans. Difficult subject matter, style devoid of feelings, effectless words and unknown logicism make Russell very complicated for average readers. 
(v) How is Russell a pacifist?
Ans. A pacifist is a person who believes that war and violence are unjustifiable. Russell condemned both sides in World War I (1914-1918), and for his uncompromising stand he was fined, imprisoned, and deprived of his teaching post at Cambridge. In World War II (1939-1945), he was an ardent opponent of nuclear weapons. 
(vi) Why is Russell apposed to irrationality in human life?
Ans. According to Russell the whole conception of sin is merely a manifestation of the superstitious bent of mind. He says when man abandons his own reason and is content to rely upon authority, there is no end to his troubles. It is the irrational belief that human nature cannot be changed, and that, for this reason, there will always be wars. That is why Russell is opposed to irrationality in human life.
(vii) 'Man' is the basic concern of Russell. Why?
Ans. Man is the basic concern of Russell because he is not only a philosopher but also a humanist. His pacifism, championship of democracy and moral fervour prove that he has the good of mankind at heart. 
(viii) What is the main focus of Russell's 'Philosophy and Politics'?
Ans.  The main focus of Russell's "Philosophy and Politics" is the disastrous political consequences of Hegel's philosophy and the merits of Lock's philosophy of empiricism. Russell says that empiricist liberalism is the only philosophy that can serve mankind's purposes in our times. 
(ix) Why does Russell favour the idea of world government?
Ans. Russell is a great believer in a single government for the whole world. In his essays "The Future of Mankind" and "Ideas That Have Helped Mankind", he insists that the world can be saved from wars and total extinction of the human race through the establishment of a world-government. 
(x) What is the difference between Hegel and Locke's philosophy?
Ans. Hegel philosophy is that true liberty consists in obedience to an arbitrary authority, free speech is an evil, absolute monarchy is good, war is desirable, and an international organization for the peaceful settlement of disputes would be a misfortune. Whereas Locke's philosophy offers a theoretical justification of democracy. It preaches religious toleration, representative institutions, and the limitations of governmental power by the system of checks and balances. 
(xi) What does Russell suggest for the Middle East?
Ans. Russell expresses his opposition to what he views as European imperialism in the Middle East. In the Middle East, Russell suggests that the West should avoid opposing Arab nationalism, and proposes the creation of a United Nations as peacekeeping force to guard Israel's frontiers to ensure that Israel is protected from aggression and prevented from committing it. 
(xii) How would you define 'empiricism'?
Ans. Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. John Locke is a leading philosopher of British empiricism. 
(xiii) Interpret 'Change is one thing, progress is another'.
Ans. This line is from Russell's essay "Philosophy and Politics". In this line he says that 'change' and 'progress' are two different things. 'Change is scientific and 'progress' is ethical; 'change' is indubitable whereas 'progress' is a matter of controversy. 
(xiv) What are the three possible scenarios for the future of mankind?
Ans. Russell begins his essay, "The Future of Mankind", with three possible scenarios for the future of mankind. The first scenario is the extinction of the human race with the third world war. The second scenario is that the world would revert to a state of barbarism. And the third scenario is the unification of the world under one united power. 
(xv) Why does Russell want a safe and prosperous future of mankind?
Ans. Russell wants a safe and prosperous future of mankind because he is a humanist. His pacifism, championship of democracy and moral fervour prove that he has the good of mankind at heart.