4. PAPER IV (Prose)


1. Answer the following questions. 
(i) Who was Bacon and what did he do?
(ii) What is your opinion about Bacon in the light of his character sketch?
(iii) What do the essays of Bacon tell about his age?
(iv) What is aphorism?
(v) Why Bacon is called modern?
(vi) Why is Bacon's style aphoristic?
(vii) Why is Bacon's style different?
(viii) Is Bacon's precision his wisdom?
(ix) What do Bacon's essays teach?
(x) Point our the Renaissance elements in Bacon's essays.
(xi) Bacon's essays are full of wisdom. How?
(xii) Bacon's style is pithy. How?
(xiii) Why is Bacon called a worldly moralist?
(xiv) How are Bacon's essay an expression of brevity?
(xv) What is the major difference between Russell's and Bacon's prose style? 
2. Answer the following questions. 
(i) According to Bacon, what are the main benefits of study?
(ii) What does Bacon meany by 'writing makes an exact man' in his essay 'Of Studies'?
(iii) What is Bacon's main focus in 'Of Friendship'?
(iv) What are the fruits of friendship as described in 'Of Friendship' by Bacon?
(v) What is Bacon's main focus in 'Of Truth'?
(vi) Interpret 'No pleasure is comparable to the standing upon the vantage-ground of truth'.
(vii) What is the main focus in 'Of Revenge'?
(viii) What is Bacon against taking revenge?
(ix) What is the main focus in 'Of Great Place'?
(x) In what ways does the essay 'Of Great Place' reflect Bacon's idealism?
(xi) What is the main focus in 'Of Ambition'?
(xii) What is the main focus in 'Of Adversity'?
(xiii) Interpret 'Prosperity is the blessing of the Old Testament; adversity is the blessing of the New'.
(xiv) According to Bacon, what is the advantage of Simulation and Dissimulation?
(xv) Why does Bacon use 'Of' before starting his essays?
3. Bacon's Prose Style
4. Bacon As a Moralist
5. Bacon As a Philosopher
6. Bacon's Worldly Wisdom
7. Renaissance Elements in Bacon
8. Critical Appreciation of 'Of Studies'
9. Answer the following questions. 
(i) What is the real title of 'Gulliver's Travels'?
(ii) What is mock-utopia?
(iii) How 'Gulliver's Travels' is a satire?
(iv) Is Swift a pessimist?
(v) Has 'Gulliver's Travels' been written for children?
(vi) Is 'Gulliver's Travels' interesting?
(vii) Is 'Gulliver's Travels' a tragic work?
(viii) What is the purpose of Swift in writing 'Gulliver's Travels'?
(ix) Who are Swift's satirical targets?
(x) What is the allegorical significance of the floating island of Laputa?
(xi) What are the two empires fighting about in 'Gulliver's Travels'?
(xii) What is the significance of size in 'Gulliver's Travels'?
(xiii) Who is Gulliver?
(xiv) Who are Lilliput?
(xv) How did Gulliver help the king of Lilliput?
10. Answer the following questions. 
(i) What is the symbolic significance of Lilliput?
(ii) How do the Lilliputians treat Gulliver when they first encounter him?
(iii) What is the great service performed by Gulliver to the Emperor of Lilliput, and what is this reward?
(iv) What is Laputa and where is it situated?
(v) Who are Houyhnhnms?
(vi) Why does Gulliver not like Houyhnhnms?
(vii) Why does Gulliver want to stay with the Houyhnhnms?
(viii) What makes the Houyhnhnms' society ideal or a model for humans?
(ix) The Yahoos stand for the evil in man. Explain.
(x) What do Small Endians and Big Endians stand for in 'Gulliver's Travels'?
(xi) Why is Gulliver so eager to assert his own country's importance to Brobdingnagians?
(xii) Who is Skyresh Bolgolam?
(xiii) Whor are Blefuscudians?
(xiv) Who are Balnibarbians?
(xv) Why does Gulliver keep traveling despite his many misfortunes?
11. Swift's Prose Style
12. Swift As a Satirist
13. Swift As a Misanthrope 
14. Popularity of 'Gulliver's Travels'
15. Elements of Utopia in 'Gulliver's Travels'
16. First and Last Voyage of 'Gulliver's Travel'
17. Answer the following questions.
(i) In his preface, what does Strachey claim are his goals in writing 'Eminent Victorians'?
(ii) What are the contents of 'Eminent Victorians'?
(iii) What are Strachey's targets of irony?
(iv) Who was General Gordon?
(v) When and where was General Gordon born?
(vi) Why is General Gordon always studying his Bible?
(vii) What is the physical appearance of General Gordon?
(viii) What services did General Gordon render for Britain?
(ix) What services did General Gordon render for China?
(x) Why was General Gordon given the nickname 'Chinese'?
(xi) What services did General Gordon render with the Khedive?
(xii) What services did General Gordon perform as the governor general of Sudan?
(xiii) Why was General Gordon sent to Khartoum?
(xiv) When and why General Gordon return to Europe?
(xv) How did General Gordon meet his death?
18. Answer the following questions. 
(i) What are the main features of Strachey's prose style?
(ii) Define biography?
(iii) What is 'Florence Nightingale' about?
(iv) What was she given the name, Florence Nightingale?
(v) Why Miss Florence Nightingale was admired?
(vi) What methods does Strachey use to build sympathy for Nightingale?
(vii) What seems to be Strachey's view of religion in 'Florence Nightingale'?
(viii) How does 'Florence Nightingale' differ in manner and tone from conventional Victorian biography?
(ix) What was the repute of nursing in Victorian Era?
(x) Why did Florence reject the life of high society?
(xi) How did Florence prepare for her life as a nurse?
(xii) What do you know about Crimean War?
(xiii) Why did Florence Nightingale remain unmarried?
(xiv) How did Florence get the name, 'The Lady of the Lamp'?
(xv) What honours were given to Florence Nightingale by a grateful nation?
19. Strachey's Prose Style
20. Strachey As a Biographer
21. Strachey's Ironic Attitude
22. The Psychological Milieu of Strachey
23. Critical Appreciation of 'End of General Gordan'
24. Critical Appreciation of 'Florence Nightingale'
25. Answer the following questions.
(i) Write the names of contents of 'Unpopular Essays' by Russell.
(ii) Is Russell's 'Unpopular Essays' about unpopularity?
(iii) Why are Russell's essays so difficult?
(iv) Why is Russell so complicated?
(v) How is Russell a pacifist?
(vi) Why is Russell apposed to irrationality in human life?
(vii) 'Man' is the basic concern of Russell. Why?
(viii) What is the main focus of Russell's 'Philosophy and Politics'?
(ix) Why does Russell favour the idea of world government?
(x) What is the difference between Hegel and Locke's philosophy?
(xi) What does Russell suggest for the Middle East?
(xii) How would you define 'empiricism'?
(xiii) Interpret 'Change is one thing, progress is another'.
(xiv) What are the three possible scenarios for the future of mankind?
(xv) Why does Russell want a safe and prosperous future of mankind?
26. Answer the following questions. 
(i) What does Russell discuss in 'The Philosophy of Laymen'?
(ii) What does Russell mean by 'Intellectual Rubbish'?
(iii) Was Russell impressed by Hindu philosophy? Why?
(iv) What is the difference between theoretical and practical philosophy?
(v) What are Russell's views about 'science'?
(vi) What is the basic difference between science and philosophy?
(vii) What are the main functions of a teacher?
(viii) Why does Russell favour freedom for the teacher?
(ix) According to Russell, what are the dogmas of religion?
(x) What was the race of the horses with human powers called?
(xi) Does Russell favour religion or science?
(xii) What ideas did help mankind in pre-historic times?
(xiii) How has the idea of brotherhood helped mankind?
(xiv) What evil passions have harmed mankind?
(xv) How Christian Asceticism and Political Asceticism have harmed mankind?
27. Russell's Prose Style
28. Russell As a Philosopher
29. Connection Between Philosophy and Politics
30. The Future of Mankind
31. The Functions of a Teacher
32. Ideas That Have Helped Mankind
33. Answer the following questions. 
(i) Who is Edward Said?
(ii) Why is Edward Said famous?
(iii) What are the nicknames of Edward Said?
(iv) What is the source of 'Culture and Imperialism'?
(v) What is the main focus of Edward Said in 'Introduction to Culture and Imperialism'?
(vi) When was 'Culture and Imperialism' published?
(vii) What is the connection between 'Culture and Imperialism' and 'Orientalism'?
(viii) What are different attitudes towards culture according to Edward Said?
(ix) What is imperialism?
(x) What damages has imperialism caused in the past?
(xi) What is the relationship between culture and imperialism of the West?
(xii) What does Edward Said mean by civilization?
(xiii) What is colonialism?
(xiv) What is post colonialism?
(xv) What are literary illusions?
34. Answer the following questions. 
(i) On what major topics did Edward Said write?
(ii) Write the names of four works of Edward Said?
(iii) What awards did Edward Said get for his works?
(iv) 'Culture is learned'. What does it mean?
(v) Interpret 'We are at a point in our work when we can no longer ignore empires and the imperial context in our studies'.
(vi) Why does Edward Said call American 'A Dishonest Broker'?
(vii) What was the dilemma of Palestinians according to Edward Said?
(viii) What is the dilemma of identity for Palestinians?
(ix) What is the effect of imperialism on Literature?
(x) Edward Said is a greater admirer of political stability.
(xi) Imperialism is based on science and knowledge.
(xii) Why does Edward Said admire Joseph Conrad?
(xiii) What was the effect of Industrial Revolution on European Imperialism?
(xiv) What was the effect of World Wars on European Imperialism?
(xv) When and how did Edward Said die? 
35. Edward Said's Prose Style
36. Edward Said's Views on Culture
37. Edward Said's Views on Imperialism
38. Relationship Between Culture and Imperialism
39. Classical English Novelists in 'Introduction to Culture and Imperialism'
40. Influence of Post Colonialism on Edward Said

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