Answer the following questions. 
(i) Define poetry.
Ans. Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language -- such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre -- to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. 
(ii) Define alliteration.
Ans. Alliteration is a stylistic device in which a number of words, having the same first consonant sound, occur close together in a series of multiple words. For example, A big bully beats a baby boy. 
(iii) What do you mean by accent?
Ans. Accent is a rhythmically significant stress on the syllables of a verse within a particular metrical pattern, usually at regular intervals. In basic analysis of a poem by scansion, accents are represented with a slash (/).  
(iv) What is apostrophe?
Ans. Apostrophe is an exclamatory figure of speech in which the poet addresses an absent person, an abstract idea, or personification. For example, "O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?"
(v) How is a simile different from a metaphor?
Ans. A simile directly compares two things with the help of words "like" or "as". For example, "Her cheeks are red like a rose". Whereas, metaphor identifies something as being the same as some unrelated thing. For example, "All the world's a stage". 
(vi) Define humour.
Ans. Humour is the quality of a literary or informative work that makes the character and/or situation seem funny, laughable, amusing, or ludicrous. 
(vii) Define irony.
Ans. Irony is a contrast or discrepancy between what is said and what is meant or between what happens and what is expected to happen. For example, "The butter is as soft as a marble piece."
(viii) Define satire.
Ans. Satire is a technique employed to expose and criticize foolishness and corruption of an individual or a society by using humour, irony, wit, exaggeration or ridicule. 
(ix) What do you understand by understatement?
Ans. An understatement, the opposite of hyperbole, is a literary device in which a writer or speaker attributes less importance or conveys less passion than the subject would seem to demand. For example, "The desert is sometimes dry and sandy" is an understatement. 
(x) What do you understand by Renaissance?
Ans. The Renaissance is a period from the 14th to the 17th century. It was a time of great social and cultural change in Europe. It was the "rebirth" of classical literature. Shakespeare, Donne, Herbert, Ben Jonson and Milton are important literary figures of this period. 
(xi) What is the important about the fact that 'The Prologue' is set in the month of April?
Ans. The month of April is the start of spring. The spring is a symbol of the new beginnings and the creation of new lives the pilgrims are about to undertake. So "The Prologue" is set in the month of April. 
(xii) Who was St. Thomas A. Becket?
Ans. St. Thomas Becket, born in London, England, on December 21, 1118, was the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170 by King Henry II' knights. The king had ordered his murder for refusing to give the monarchy power over the church. 
(xiii) What is Chaucer's contribution to English Literature?
Ans. Chaucer is the father of English poetry. He made experiments in versification and gave it a new shape. "The Canterbury Tales" is said to be the first element of drama that gave rise to drama. He is certainly the grandfather of the English novel. 
(xiv) Which dialect did Chaucer use for his poetry?
Ans. Before Chaucer, English language was divided into a number of dialects. The four of them vastly prominent then the others were: the Southern, the Midland, the Northern, the Kentish. Chaucer used East Midland dialect for his poetry.
(xv) What is the purpose of 'The Prologue'?
Ans. The purpose of 'The Prologue" is twofold: to introduce the characters who are making their pilgrimage to the Canterbury and the framework of the stories to follow.


Irony and Satire in "The Prologue" 

Answer the following questions. 
(i) What is an epic?
Ans. An epic is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation narrated in elevated style. For example, Homer's "Iliad" is an epic. 
(ii) What is a blank verse?
Ans. Blank verse is a category of poetry based on unrhymed lines and a definite meter, usually of iambic pentameter. Examples of blank verse can be found in Shakespeare, William Cullen Bryant, and Robert Frost. 
(iii) What is a free verse?
Ans. Free verse is an open form of poetry. It does not use consistent meter patterns, rhyme, or any other musical pattern. It thus tends to follow the rhythm of natural speech. Examples of free verse can be found in Mathew Arnold, T.S. Eliot and Ezra Pound. 
(iv) What is a protagonist?
Ans. A protagonist is the central character or leading figure in poetry, drama, novel or any other literary work. For example, Satan in Milton's "Paradise Lost", Hamlet in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" and Elizabeth Bennet in Austen's "Pride and Prejudice" are protagonists. 
(v) What does the title of "Paradise Lost" refer to?
Ans. The title of "Paradise Lost" refers to the Biblical story of the Fall of Man: the temptation of Adam and Eve by the fallen angel Satan and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden. 
(vi) What is the setting of "Paradise Lost"?
Ans. The first two books are set in Hell. Heaven is the setting of Book III and VI. The Garden of Eden is, for the most part, the setting of the rest of the poem. Time Setting is before the beginning of time. 
(vii) What is the subject of "Paradise Lost"?
Ans. The subject of "Paradise Lost" is a lost paradise as the the central theme to explain, defend, and vindicate God's action in dealing with succumbing to the temptation of Satan by Adam and Eve after they eat the forbidden fruit. 
(viii) Who are the main characters of "Paradise Lost"?
Ans. Satan, Adam, Eve, God, the Son, Devils (Beelzebub), and Angels (Michael) are the main characters of "Paradise Lost". 
(ix) For what does Milton invoke the Heavenly Muse?
Ans. Muses are nine goddesses who preside over the arts and sciences, Milton invokes his muse, whom he identifies as the Holy Spirit, to fill his mind with divine knowledge and guidance in his great work of singing about man's disobedience and the consequent loss of Paradise. 
(x) Why Adam and Even were expelled from Paradise?
Ans. Satan, in the disguise of a serpent, convinced Eve to eat the Forbidden Fruit. She in turn convinced Adam to have a taste. As a result of Adam and Eve's sin of eating the Forbidden Fruit, they were expelled from Paradise. 
(xi) Why does Eve eat the forbidden fruit?
Ans. Satan, in the disguise of a serpent, entered Paradise. Finding Eve alone, he flattered her beauty and godliness. Eve was amazed to see a creature of the Garden speak. Satan told her that he had gained the gift of speech by eating a particular fruit. Even was seriously tempted and ate the Forbidden Fruit. 
(xii) Is Eve to blame for the fall?
Ans. It's hard to blame Eve alone for the fall. Both Eve and Adam were given free will. Eve ate first, but Adam also ate the Forbidden Fruit. If Adam was not able to resist his wife, how could he resist Satan? 
(xiii) For what sin was Satan cast out of Heaven?
Ans. Satan became vain about his beauty and position, and his heart became rebellious against God. As a punishment, God cast him out of heaven and sent him to earth for his sin - the revolt against God. 
(xiv) How long did it take Satan to fall from Heaven to Hell?
Ans. It took nine days and nine nights for Satan to fall from Heaven to Hell. 
(xv) What demon is floating alongside Satan in the fiery lake at the beginning of the poem?
Ans. It was Beelzebub, Satan's second in command in the hierarchy of fallen angels who was floating alongside Satan in the fiery lake at the beginning of the poem.


Milton's Grand Style in "Paradise Lost"

Answer the following questions. 
(i) What does the title of 'The Rape of the Lock' refer to? 
Ans. The poem's title might seem confusing until we do a little digging into the etymology of the word "rape". In the 18th century, in Pope's day, "rape" also meant to carry away or take something from someone by force. The word "lock" here means the tress, curl, or ringlet of a woman's hair.
(ii) What is the setting of 'The Rape of the Lock'? 
Ans. The action takes place in London and its environs in the early 1700's on a single day. The story begins at the London residence of Belinda. The scene then shifts to the Thames. The rest of the story takes place at Hampton Court Palace, except for a brief scene in the cave of the Queen of Spleen.
(iii) 'The Rape of the Lock' is called a mock epic poem. Why? 
Ans. Like typical epics, there is a statement of purpose and invocation to the Muse in "The Rape of the Lock". It is divided into Cantos and written in heroic couplets. Moreover, there is use of supernatural machinery. However, there is a satirical twist in this epic. It satirizes the absurdities and frivolities of the aristocratic ladies and gentlemen. This makes this poem a 'mock epic'. 
(iv) Define allegory. 
Ans. An allegory is an extended metaphor in which abstract ideas, concepts and principles are described in terms of characters, figures and events in ways that are comprehensible to its viewers, readers, or listeners. For example, George Orwell's novel "Animal Farm" is a political allegory.
(v) What is a heroic couplet? 
Ans. A heroic couplet is a traditional form for English poetry, commonly used in epic and narrative poetry. It refers to poems constructed from a sequence of rhyming pairs of lines in iambic pentameter. For example: "Know then thyself, presume not God to scan/ The proper study of Mankind is Man".
(vi) What are the satirical targets of 'The Rape of the Lock'? 
Ans. The principal satirical targets of "The Rape of the Lock" are the absurdities and frivolities of the fashionable circle - aristocratic ladies and gentlemen - of the 18th century England.
(vii) What are some of the images that recur through the poem 'The Rape of the Lock'? 
Ans. The first recurring image is the sun. It marks the passing of time in the poem and emphasizes the dramatic unity of the story. Another image that recurs is that of china. Delicate dishes that are beautiful, fragile, and purely luxurious form a fitting counterpart to a world that is ornamental. The images of gold and silver signify the real value of underlying glittery and mesmerizing surfaces.
(viii) Write the names of the women in the poem 'The Rape of the Lock'? 
Ans. There are five major women in the poem. Belinda is the heroine of the poem. Thalestris is Belinda's friend. Betty is Belinda's maid. Clarissa is an attendant at the Hampton Court Party. Spleen is the queen of bad tempers and the source of detestable qualities in human beings. 
(ix) What is Belinda's full name in 'The Rape of the Lock'? 
Ans. Belinda is the heroine of the poem "The Rape of the Lock" by Alexander Pope. She is named for a real person: Arabella Fermor; a member of Pope's circle of prominent Roman Catholics.
(x) Who was the guardian spirit of Belinda? 
Ans. The guardian spirit of Belinda is Ariel. He is a sylph. He warns her that something dreadful may happen and sets a guard of sylphs to protect his charge, but he is unsuccessful in preventing the loss of the lock of hair.
(xi) What spirit does Pope call upon to help him write his poem? 
Ans. Usually a poet calls upon one the the 'nine daughter of Zeus' to sanctify his poetry. However, in 'The Rape of the Lock", Alexander Pope invokes his catholic friend John Caryll instead, as a muse to provide him with blessings to narrate a story of not a great hero but a rich, vain woman called Belinda. 
(xii) To whom does Pope dedicate the poem 'The Rape of the Lock'? 
Ans. Pope dedicates this poem to John Caryll. He was the friend of Arabella Fermor (Belinda) and Pope. He was who originally asked Pope to write this poem.
(xiii) Who adores the 'sparkling cross' Belinda has on her neck? 
Ans. Infidels adore this cross. Pope is highlighting the fact that the cross has as much meaning to Belinda as it would to a person without any religious beliefs. The cross is adored by the Infidels, kissed by the Jews, but no mention of Priests or Gallants is made in reference to the cross. 
(xiv) According to Pope, when women die, their spirits live on. What are the four possible forms these spirits will take? 
Ans. When quarrelsome women die, their souls go to fire and they become Salamanders. When polite and submissive women die, their souls return to water and they become Nymphs. The souls of proud and serious minded women go to earth and they become Gnomes. The souls of flirt and coquette women go to air and they become Sylphs.
(xv) What everyday feminine ritual is Pope connecting with the ancient Greco-Roman sacrifice?
Ans. Sacrifice was the essential element of Greek and Roman religious rituals. Pope is connecting the feminine ritual of dressing with the ancient Greco-Roman sacrifice. Belinda's morning routine can be connected with a hero's ritualized preparation before battle. Belinda's reflection in the mirror becomes the image of goddess while her maid is the 'inferior priestess', worshiping at the altar.  


Character Sketch of Belinda

Answer the following questions. 
(i) What is John Donne considered to be? 
Ans. John Donne (1572 - 1631) was an English poet and a cleric in the Church of England. He is considered the pre-eminent representative of the metaphysical poets. He is often considered the greatest love poet in the English language. He is also noted for his religious verse. 
(ii) Define metaphysical poetry? 
Ans. Metaphysical poetry is highly intellectualized poetry marked by bold and ingenious conceits, incongruous imagery, complexity and subtlety of though, frequent use of paradox, and often by deliberate harshness or rigidity of expression. John Donne, Henry Vaughan and Andrew Marvell are famous metaphysical poets. 
(iii) What is a theme? 
Ans. Theme is the main, fundamental and universal idea or an underlying meaning of a literary work that may be stated directly or indirectly. It unifies and controls the entire literary work. For example, the main theme in the play "Romeo and Juliet" is love with smaller themes of sacrifice, tragedy, struggle, hardship, devotion and so on. 
(iv) What are some common themes in the poems of John Donne? 
Ans. Love as both physical and spiritual, religion, death and the hereafter, paradoxes, belittling cosmic forces, interconnectedness of humanity, and fidelity are the common themes in the poem of John Donne. 
(v) What is the difference between Donne's love poems and divine poems? 
Ans. The theme of love poems and divine poems is different. Love poems describe three kinds of love; cynical, conjugal and Platonic. Divine poems describe two notes; the Catholic and the Anglican. However, the thought and spirit behind the two categories of poems is same. 
(vi) What are the three moods of love in Donne's poems? 
Ans. The first mood of love is cynical. It celebrates the physical appetite, notably presented in the "Elegies". The second mood of love is conjugal. It is a mutually enjoyed love between man and woman as found in "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning". Thirdly, there is the Platonic love, as in "The Canonization", where love is regarded as a holy emotion like the worship of a devotee of God. 
(vii) How does Donne distinguish between physical and spiritual love? 
Ans. "Physical love" is the love that is primarily based upon the sensation or the presence of the beloved or that emphasizes sexuality whereas "spiritual love" is based on higher and more refined feelings than sensation. As a Metaphysical poet, Donne uses physical loved to evoke spiritual love. 
(viii) What is a cynical love? 
Ans. Cynicism is an attitude of scornful or jaded negativity, especially a general distrust of the integrity or professed motives of others. So cynical love is anti-woman and hostile to the fair sex. It indicates the frailty of man -- a matter of advantage for lovers who like casual and extra-marital relations with ladies. 
(ix) How is Donne's life reflected in his poetry? 
Ans. Several major events in Donne's life -- his marriage, his conversion to Anglicanism, his wife's early death, illness, and his elevation to the Deanship of St. Paul's -- can be seen in his poetry. 
(x) How is death treated in Donne's poetry? 
Ans. Death is treated both as a reality of life and as an abstract concept. For Donne death is not necessarily somber but provides a transition moment -- often a climax -- denoting a change of state. "Death Be Not Proud", personifies Death as a powerless being who cannot survive past the Resurrection; ultimately, all people will reach their metaphysical states. 
(xi) What is an allusion? 
Ans. An allusion is a casual reference to a person, place, event, or another passage of literature, often without explicit identification. Allusions can originate in mythology, biblical references, historical events, legends, geography, or earlier literary works. For example, "Don't act like a Romeo in front of her." - "Romeo" is a reference to Shakespeare's Romeo, a passionate lover of Juliet in "Romeo and Juliet". 
(xii) What is a conceit? 
Ans. Conceit is a figure of speech in which two vastly different objects are likened together with the help of similes, metaphors, imagery, hyperbole and oxymora. One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning", a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. 
(xiii) What is hyperbole?
Ans. Hyperbole is the use of exaggeration as a rhetorical device or figure of speech. It is used to create emphasis on a situation. It may be used to evoke strong feelings or to create a strong impression, but is not to meant to be taken literally. For example, "I had to wait in the station for ten days - an eternity". (The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad)
(xiv) Why do you mean by elegy? 
Ans. An elegy is a mournful, melancholic or plaintive poem in the form of elegiac couplets. It is usually a funeral song or a lament for the dead. "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard" by Thomas Gray and "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd" by Walt Whitman are the most popular examples of elegy. 
(xv) How many elegies did Donne write? 
Ans. Donne wrote 20 elegies. These include: Jealosie, The Anagram, Change, The Perfume, His Picture, Oh, Let Me Not Serve, Natures Lay Ideot, The Comparison, The Autumnall, The Dreame, The Bracelet, His Parting From Her, Julia, A Tale of a Citizen and His Wife, The Expostulation, On His Mistris, Variety, Loves Progress, To His Mistris Going to Bed and Love Warr. 


Donne As a Metaphysical Poet

     The most striking quality of Donne's metaphysical poetry is his use of inventive, ingenious and intellectual conceits. A conceit is a figure of speech in which two far-fetched objects or images of very different nature are compared. Donne's poetry is replete with conceits. The most famous and striking one is the comparison of the lovers to a pair of compasses in "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning". A clever, though obviously  frivolous conceit is employed in "The Flea" where the insect is called marriage-bed and the marriage temple of the lovers because it has bitten them and sucked their blood. In "Garden", Donne wants to be converted into a fountain so that he may weep all the time. While these conceits evoked Dr. Johnson's displeasure, these are fairly well enjoyed by modern readers.
     Concentration is an important quality of metaphysical poetry in general and Donne's poetry in particular. In all of his poems, the reader is held to one idea or line of argument. His poems are brief and closely woven. In "The Ecstasy", for instance, the principal argument is that through the different acts of love, the function of man as man is being worthily performed. The poet develops the theme without digression. An expanded epigram would be a fitting description of a metaphysical poem. No word is wasted, and nothing described in detail. There is a sinewy strength in the style. Verse forms are usually simple, but always suitable in enforcing the sense of the poem.


Answer the following questions. 
(i) Why is Spenser called 'The Poets' Poet'? 
Ans. Spenser was first called "The Poets' Poet" by the English essayist Charles Lamb because his poetic faculty was unique, his greatness was immediately recognized, he coached many poets, and a host of poets followed him. Milton, Browne, and two Fletchers were his professed disciples. 
(ii) What are Spenser's intentions in writing 'The Faerie Queen'? 
Ans. Spenser's aim in writing "The Faerie Queene" was to a create a great national literature for England, equal to the classic epic poems of Homer and Virgil. The poem is dedicated to Elizabeth I, who is represented in the poem as the Faerie Queene herself. 
(iii) What is Spenserian Stanza? 
Ans. The Spenserian Stanza is a fixed verse form invented by Edmund Spenser for his epic poem "The Faerie Queene". Each stanza contains nine lines in total: eight lines in iambic pentameter followed by a single 'alexandrine' line in iambic hexameter. The rhyme scheme of these lines is 'ababbcbcc."
(iv) Who is Una? 
Ans. Una is Redcross's future wife, and the other major protagonist in Book I. She is meek, humble, and beautiful, but strong when it is necessary; she represents Truth, which Redcross must find in order to be a true Christian. 
(v) Why does Redcross Knight abandon Una? 
Ans. The Redcross Knight abandons Una because he believes the deception of the Archimago, which pretends to show that Una is not chaste. 
(vi) Which of the moral virtues does Redcross Knight represent? 
Ans. The Redcross Knight represents holiness. He is bearing the symbol of Jesus Christ upon his shield. His brand of holiness includes moral and theological purity, as he fights deceptive monsters on behalf of his lady Una. 
(vii) What role does Archimago play in 'The Faerie Queen'?
Ans. Archimago is a sorcerer. His name means "Arch-Image". In the narrative, he is continually engaged in deceitful magics, as when he makes a false Una to tempt the Red-Cross Knight into lust, and when he failed, conjures another image, of a squire, to deceive the knight into believing that Una was false to him. 
(viii) What is 'the house of Morpheus'? 
Ans. Mopheus is the god of sleeps and dreams. It lives in a mystical cave that seems far removed from reality. This cave is called "the house of Morpheus". 
(ix) What is meant by a Ballad? 
Ans. A narrative poem, often of folk origin and intended to be sung, consisting of simple stanzas and usually having a refrain. The Anonymous medieval ballad, "Barbara Allan", exemplifies the genre.
(x) What is a sonnet? 
Ans. A sonnet is a poem of fourteen lines using any of a number of formal rhyme schemes. In English, a sonnet has 3 quatrains followed by a couplet and ten syllables per line. (iambic pentameter). It usually expresses a single, complete thought, idea or sentiment. Examples include P.B. Shelley's "Ozymandias" and John Keats' "When I Have Fears".
(xi) Explain the rhyme scheme in a sonnet. 
Ans. The Petrarchan or Italian sonnet has the rhyme scheme ABBAABBA CDECDE. The Shakespearean sonnet has the rhyme scheme ABAB CDCD EFEF GG. The Spenserian sonnet is a variation of the English sonnet with the rhyme scheme ABAB BCBC CDCD EE. 
(xii) What is a Shakespearean Sonnet? 
Ans. A Shakespearean Sonnet is a poem expressive of though, emotion or idea. It is composed of three quatrains and a terminal couplet in iambic pentameter with the rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef gg. It is also call Elizabeth Sonnet or English Sonnet. 
(xiii) How many Sonnets did Shakespeare write? 
Ans. Shakespeare wrote 154 sonnets which were collected together and published posthumously in 1609 by Thomas Thorpe. 
(xiv) What are the major themes of Shakespeare's sonnets? 
Ans. Different types of romantic love, the dangers of lust and love, Platonic love vs. carnal lust, real beauty vs. cliched beauty, the responsibilities of being beautiful, the ravages of time, selfishness and greed, self-deprecation and inadequacy, homoerotic desire and financial bondage are the major themes of Shakespeare's sonnets. 
(xv) Who is Shakespeare's Dark Lady? 
Ans. Twenty-four of Shakespeare's sonnets are addressed to a mysterious woman called Dark Lady. Scholars believe that she could be one of four historical women: Mary Fitton, a lady in waiting to Queen Elizabeth; Lucy Morgan, a brothel owner and former maid to Queen Elizabeth; Emilia Lanier, the mistress of Lord Hunsdon, patron of the arts; and the mother of his illegitimate son Devanant. 


Shakespeare As a Sonneteer


Answer the following questions. 
(i) How did Oedipus save Thebes before becoming its king?
Ans. A Sphinx had been terrorizing Thebes for and undisclosed amount of time. It placed a great plague over Thebes and refused to remove it until someone correctly answered its riddle. Many heroes attempted to answer the riddle, but each one was eaten alive after answering incorrectly. When Oedipus answered the Sphinx, it killed itself.
(ii) What was the riddle posed by Sphinx to Oedipus?
Ans. The riddle posed by Sphinx to Oedipus was, "What goes on four feet in the morning, two feet at noon, and three feet in the evening?" When Oedipus gave the correct answer, "man", the Sphinx threw itself off a cliff and died.
(iii) Why do the Thebans come to Oedipus?
Ans. A procession of priests, who are in turn surrounded by the impoverished and sorrowful citizens of Thebes comes to Oedipus. Thebes has been struck by a plague, the citizens are dying, and no one knows how to put an end to it. Oedipus asks a priest why the citizens have gathered around the palace. The priest responds that the city is dying and asks the king to save Thebes.
(iv) What do Thebans think of Oedipus as their king?
Ans. Thebans think that Oedipus is an intelligent and decent king who cares deeply for his people. When Thebes has been struck by a plague, they gather around his palace so that Oedipus may save them from the calamity.
(v) Who is Creon?
Ans. Creon is the brother of queen Jocasta, the wife of King Laius as well as Oedipus. He goes to the oracle at Delphi to seek Apollo's advice in saving Thebes from plague. He is accused by Oedipus of conspiring with Tiresias to take the crown from Oedipus. He becomes king in the end when Jocasta kills herself and Oedipus blinds himself.
(vi) Why did Creon go to the Oracle?
Ans. He went to the Oracle at Delphi to seek Apollo's advice in saving Thebes from plague. He wanted to know the cause and remedy of the plague from Apollo.  
(vii) What message did Creon bring from Delphi Oracle?
Ans. Creon brought the message from Delphi Oracle that the gods had caused the plague in Thebes in response to the murder of Laius, the previous king of Thebes. The gods had demanded that the murdered (the pollution of this land) should be killed or exiled. The plague would be lifted after the completion of the task.
(viii) Who was Laius?
Ans. Laius was the king of Thebes before Oedipus. He was married to his distant cousin, Jocasta. Apollo's oracle played a leading role in his reign. When Apollo warned that his son would kill him, Laius was determined that this was not to be. When his son, Oedipus, was born, Laius tied his feet together and left him to die on a mountain. Many years later while on vacation, Laius was killed by Oedipus, who had survived.
(ix) Define Chorus.
Ans. Chorus is a group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing and commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. The leader of the chorus was called Charogos.
(x) To which three gods does the Chorus pray for help?
Ans. The Chorus prays to the gods Appollo, Athena, and Artemis for help.
(xi) What is Creon's defense against the accusations against him?
Ans. Creon argues that it does not make sense that he would try to overthrow Oedipus. He already shares a large amount of the authority as part of the de facto triumvirate made of Oedipus, Jocasta and himself. He thinks it would be silly to pursue through violence and hassle a crown when he already has the power. As he lacks the ambition for that, he thinks the claims are unfounded.
(xii) Who is Choragos?
Ans. Choragos is the "leader" of the Chorus. He does most of the talking in the Chorus. The rest of the Chorus chants or repeats what he says, but he is clearly the leader. He is the voice of reason. He introduces Tiresias and urges Oedipus to listen to him. He also urges other characters to avoid extremes, to practice moderation, and see and hear the truth.
(xiii) Why did Oedipus and Laius confront?
Ans. There was a Delphic Oracle about Oedipus that he would grow up to kill his father and marry his mother. Oedipus and his father Laius confront to initiate the fulfillment of the prophecy.
(xiv) Why did Oedipus kill Laius where the three roads meet?
Ans. Oedipus's killing of Laius was predestined. The three roads represents past, present and future. Oedipus was pushed along by the irreversible flow of time. So he kills his father, Laius, at a place where three roads meet in the name of self-defense.
(xv) What was the prophecy about Oedipus?
Ans. The prophecy of Delphic Oracle about Oedipus was that he would grow up to kill his father and marry his mother.


Oedipus Rex As a Tragic Hero

Answer the following questions.
(i) Write the names of four plays of Marlowe.
Ans. Marlowe has left us from his short, but brilliant, career seven plays, and in several of them he was a pioneer in that particular genre. His famous plays include; Tamburlaine the Great, The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus, The Jew of Malta, and The Tragedy of Edward II.
(ii) What is the setting of the play 'The Jew of Malta'?
Ans. The five acts of the play are set in Malta in 1565, the year that the Ottoman Turks besieged the tiny Mediterranean nation. Besides the main island of Malta, the nation includes four other islands.
(iii) What are the major themes of 'The Jew of Malta'?
Ans. Hypocrisy, Machiavellian Strategy, revenge, love and avarice, lies and deceit, justice and judgment, wealth, religion, prejudice, perseverance and politics are the major themes of "The Jew of Malta".
(iv) Name the religious groups mentioned in 'The Jew of Malta'.
Ans. The play portrays characters of three religious groups -- Christians, Jews, and Muslim Turks -- in constant enmity with one another.
(v) Define the term 'Machiavellian'.
Ans. "Machiavellian" is a widely-used negative term to characterize unscrupulous politicians of the sort Machiavelli described in "The Prince". "Machiavellian" is often associated with deceit, deviousness, ambition, and brutality, although Machiavelli likely only used it as stylistic device to gain the reader's attention for his close analysis of the actual techniques used by rulers. Machiavel is a Senecan ghost in "The Jew of Malta".
(vi) What is Malta's political situation in 'The Jew of Malta'?
Ans. Malta is in a tricky political situation. Even though it is home to a majority Western, Christian population, it lives under shadow of the Turks. To stay safe, Malta has to pay a monetary tribute to the Turks. In exchange for this protection money, the Turks protect them .
(vii) Interpret 'I count religion but a childish toy'.
Ans. This line is from the Prologue spoken by Machiavell in "The Jew of Malta" by Marlowe. In this line, Machiavell denounces religion. He says that religion is nothing but a toy in the hands of religious fundamentalists and priests. It is a tool one uses to manipulate other people. This line also sets the tone of Barabas's actions throughout the rest of the play, as he lies constantly and makes plenty of derogatory comments on Christianity
(viii) Interpret 'Weigh not men, and therefore, not men's words'.
Ans. This line is from the Prologue spoken by Machiavell in "The Jew of Malta" by Marlowe. Machiavell is a symbol of Barabas's philosophy. He says that it is a cynical attitude about not trusting others or what they say. Human worth and words are not important.
(ix) Interpret 'For, so l live, perish may all the world!'
Ans. This line is from Act V spoken by Barabas in "The Jew of Malta" by Marlowe. Barabas plots to undo everything once he is Governor of Malta -- Christians, Turks, anyone in his way. He only cares for his own skin.
(x) Interpret 'Excess of wealth is cause of covetousness'.
Ans. This line is from Act I spoken by Ferneze in "The Jew of Malta" by Marlowe. Ferneze blames Barabas for being rich; it leads others to do wrong, and therefore, it is all his own fault if others take his money from him.
(xi) How the Turkish army is destroyed?
Ans. Barabas secretly makes a deal with Ferneze to kill all of the Turks in Malta in return for a huge sum of money. Barabas' plan works but Ferneze batrays him at the last minute. The Turkish army is destroyed and Barabas is killed in the trap he devised for Calymath.
(xii) Who is Barabas?
Ans. Barabas is the protagonist of the play "The Jew of Malta". He is a wealthy merchant who is unrelenting in his efforts to gain revenge against his enemies. As the prime malefactor in the play, Barabas resorts to deceit, betrayal, sedition, usury, extortion, and murder as means toward his ends.
(xiii) What are the priorities of Barabas?
Ans. Barabas has two priorities: money, and his only daughter, Abigail. Though the priorities of Barabas shift and evolve in the play, his motivations seem consistently threefold; he continues to seek and obtain "Great sums of money, he continues to pursue revenge on Ferneze, and driven by an insatiable desire for mayhem and destruction.
(xiv) Why is Barabas' all property confiscated?
Ans. Ferneze, the governor of Malta, issues a decree ordering the confiscation of half of each Jew's estate to pay tribute to the Turks; if the Jewish property owner refuses, he must become a Christian; if he refuses to become a Christian, he "shall absolutely lose all he has". Having resisted both the confiscations, Barabas loses all he has.
(xv) Why is Barabas impatient with stash of gold?
Ans. Barabas' all property is confiscated by Ferneze except a hidden stash of gold that Barabas hasn't 'fessed up to'. So he is very impatient with stash of gold in his house which has now been turned into a nunnery.


Barabas As an Evil Incarnate

Answer the following questions.
(i) Why does Iago not like Othello?
Ans. Iago's anger stems from the fact that Othello unfairly passed him over for promotion and made Michael Cassio his lieutenant, even though Cassio, unlike Iago, has no military field experience. He also suspects that Othello has slept with his wife, Emilia. However, the main cause of his hatred is his deep-seated racism against Othello.
(ii) Who is Roderigo?
Ans. Roderigo is the secondary antagonist of the play "Othello". He is a dissolute Venetian lusting after Othello's wife Desdemona. He has opened his purse to Iago in the mistaken belief that Iago is using his money to pave the way to Desdemona's bed. In the end, Roderigo dies - stabbed in the back by Iago.
(iii) Who is Desdemona?
Ans. Desdemona is a beautiful, young and white Venetian debutante. She is the daughter of a senator, Brabantio. She elopes with Othello. She is capable of defending her marriage, jesting bawdily with Iago, and responding with dignity to Othello's incomprehensible jealousy. She dies declaring her love for Othello.
(iv) Who is Michael Cassio?
Ans. Michael Cassio is Othello's lieutenant. He is a young and inexperienced soldier, whose position is much resented by Iago. Truly devoted to Othello, Cassio is extremely ashamed after being implicated in a drunken brawl on Cyprus and losing his place as lieutenant. Iago uses Cassio's youth, good looks, and friendship with Desdemona to play on Othello's insecurities about Desdemona's fidelity.
(v) Who is Brabantio?
Ans. Brabantio is a Venetian senator and the father of Desdemona in "Othello". He has entertained Othello in his home countless times before the play opens, thus giving Othello and Desdemona opportunity to fall in love. He is furious upon learning they have eloped, and Desdemona's decision is reported to be the cause of his death in the last act.
(vi) What was Brabantio's reaction to Othello's marriage to Desdemona?
Ans. When Brabantio, Desdemona's father, realizes that his daughter has married Othello, he reaction is rage. Going to where Othello is meeting with the Venetian Senators, Brabantio accuses Othello of using sorcery to seduce his daughter. He us upset because Othello is not Venetian but Moorish.
(vii) What is the military issue that the Duke of Venice and his senators discuss?
Ans. The Duke of Venice and his senators talk about the Turk army headed for the kingdom. They discuss which part of the kingdom do they plan to attack. Finally they reached the conclusion that Cyprus would be their target. That is why they send Othello to Cyprus.
(viii) Define the word 'moor'.
Ans. "Moot" is a name applied to the Arab and Berber peoples of North Africa who inhabited medieval Spain. Thus, Othello may be connected with the Moors who remained in Spain after the fall of Granada in 1492 until a later expulsion in 1609 or with the people of "Barbary" in North Africa.
(ix) How does Othello succeed in winning Desdemona's heart?
Ans. Desdemona's father, Brabantio, frequently invited Othello to be a guest at his home. Othello told tales of his strange adventures prior to coming to Venice. Desdemona used to come around to hear the stories. Eventually, Othello began sharing his tales with Desdemona privately. And, they fell in love.
(x) What is the significance of the handkerchief to Othello?
Ans. The handkerchief is the first gift Desdemona receives from Othello, so it is a token of his love. Othello claims that his mother used it to keep his father faithful to her, so, to him, the handkerchief represents martial fidelity. The pattern of strawberries on a white background strongly suggests the bloodstains left on the sheets on a virgin's weeding night, so the handkerchief suggests a guarantee of virginity as well as fidelity.
(xi) What proof does Iago use to convince Rederigo that Cassio and Desdemona are lovers?
Ans. He offers proof in the way of Othello's handkerchief that end up in Cassio's hands and an overhead conversation. He also emphasizes the contrast of black Othello and white Desdemona to defile Desdemona's goodness.
(xii) Who is Emilia?
Ans. Emilia is Iago's wife, and Desdemona's maid, a woman of practical intelligence and emotional resilience. She follows Iago in wifely duty, but during the play develops a strong loyalty to Desdemona and, at the end, denounces Iago's lies to defend Desdemona's reputation.
(xiii) What warning about Desdemona does Branbanito give to Othello?
Ans. Brabantio warns Othello that if his daughter, Desdemona, deceive him in order to marry Othello, then she can just as easily deceive Othello.
(xiv) Why does Desdemona plead the case of Cassio so passionately?
Ans. Desdemona and Cassio are firm friends. What has happened to Cassio is precisely what she could not bear to happen to herself. Therefore, Desdemona pleads the case of Cassio so passionately, asserting that he is a good man, and worthy to be reinstated in her husband's favour.
(xv) What happens to the Turkish fleet?
Ans. The Turkish fleet is broken apart by a terrible storm while sailing to Cyprus. This might mean that the Turkish attack will not happen.


Theme of Jealously in "Othello"

1. Introduction
     Jealousy is a mental cancer. It is an emotion, and the word typically refers to the thoughts and feelings of insecurity, fear, concern and anxiety over an anticipated loss or status of great personal value, particularly in reference to a human connection. Five characters in "Othello" by Shakespeare are victims of jealousy. Iago and Bianca are jealous about Cassio, Brabantio, Roderigo and Iago are jealous about Othello, and Othello becomes jealous of Desdemona. Emilia is not jealous about anyone but has a theory that jealousy is a constituent part of masculinity. Except Brabantio's jealousy of Othello and Iago's jealousy of Cassio, all characters are suffering from sexual jealousy - a jealousy which is triggered in a person when a sexual partner displays sexual interest in another person. 
2. Iago's Jealousy of Cassio
     Iago is a soldier who fights alongside Othello in his army. Proving loyal with every fight, Iago assumes that the upcoming promotion for lieutenant is imminent. Unfortunately, the promotion is given to Micheal Cassio instead. Iago cannot understand this appointment because Cassio is an inexperienced soldier who has no practical knowledge of battle. He is a man of theoretical learning. On the other hand, Iago is given the job of Ensign, or flag-bearer that is humiliating for a man who considers himself intellectually superior to everyone around him. Iago thus becomes jealous of Cassio who is now of higher rank and is young and handsome to boot. 
3. Iago's Jealousy of Othello
     Othello is a general in the Venetian defense forces. He is newly and happily married to an aristocratic Venetian woman, Desdemona. Iago is jealous of Othello's position and his ability to woo the young and alluring Desdemona. It is possible that Iago has his own secret passion for the Moor's new bride, and he is enraged at the idea of the "old black ram" attaining what he himself desires. Moreover, Iago is stuck in a loveless marriage to a woman who frequently nags him. Thus he is jealous of Othello and Desdemona's happiness in love. The jealously gets intensified when he hears a rumor that Othello has been sleeping with his wife, Emilia.
4. Brabantio's Jealousy of Othello
     Brabantio is Desdemona's father. He is jealous of the Moor for stealing his daughter's love. He accuses his new son-in-law of being a "foul-thief". He becomes jealous because he knows that he will no longer be the most important person in Desdemona's life. After Desdemona makes it clear that she loves and honours her husband, Brabantio remains vindictive, and bitterly warns Othello that Desdemona may turn out to be a slut:
Look to her, Moor, if thou hast eyes to see:
She has deceived her father, and may thee
No father has ever expressed a more hateful jealousy of his son-in-law as Brabantio.
5. Roderigo's Jealousy of Othello
      Roderigo is a wooer of Desdemona. The lovesick Roderigo has trouble with his feelings for Desdemona and is jealous watching Othello and Desdemona in love. He follows Iago's directions easily because of his jealousy of Othello's relationship with Desdemona. Along with Iago and Brabantio, he berates and criticizes Othello about everything, including race. He expresses his jealousy of Othello's marriage to Desdemona by exclaiming,
What a full fortune does the thick-lips owe
If he can carry't thus!
6. Bianca's Jealousy of Cassio
     Bianca is Cassio's prostitute girlfriend. She becomes sick with jealousy when Cassio gives her a handkerchief in order to copy Desdemona's handkerchief for him. Bianca is already unhappy with Cassio because he has not been to see her in a week, and the sight of a woman's handkerchief gives her an attack of jealousy. She throws handkerchief back at Cassio, tells him that he should give it to the whore he got it from, and declares that no matter where he got it, she is not about to copy it. Though Bianca's jealousy exists on a much smaller scale, it illustrates that the sentiment is universal.
7. Othello's Jealousy of Desdemona
     Iago plants the seed of jealousy in Othello in Act 3, Scene 3. Iago convinces Othello that Desdemona has been an unfaithful wife; she has an affair with Cassio. Othello believes Iago's lies, despite that there is not much evidence. His jealousy leads him to be too trusting of Iago. As he begins to believe the accusations, his love, affection and kindness for Desdemona fade away. Othello's jealousy reaches its peak when his token of love for Desdemona, the handkerchief, is shown up in Cassio's possession. Othello is completely convinced that Desdemona is unfaithful and he kills her because he has not way to resolve his jealousy.
8. Iago's Remarks About Jealousy
     Iago describes jealousy as a "green-eyed monster". The meat that this monster feeds on is a person's heart, which it eats away. At the same time, the monster mocks that person's heart, so that he or she feels shame. And the monster is insatiable, always gnawing away, so that the jealous person is never at peace.
O, beware, my lord, of jealousy;
It is the green-eyed monster which doth mock
The meat it feeds on;
Iago also describes jealousy as a "poison" that consumes the jealous person, eating away at him and filling him with a passionate desire for revenge.
9. Emilia's Remarks About Jealousy
     Emilia believes that jealousy does not need a cause. It is a beast that is born of itself and feeds on itself. The root of jealousy is not some action of infidelity but insecurity on the part of the one jealous. Throughout the play, Iago accuses Emilia of being unfaithful to him, just as Othello accuses Desdemona. She has never been untrue to Iago as Desdemona has never been untrue to Othello. Thus jealousy does not need an unfaithful act to inspire it. It is a part of a man or woman's nature.
But jealous souls will not be answer'd so;
They are not ever jealous for the cause, 
But jealous for they are jealous: 'tis a monster
Begot upon itself, born on itself.
10. Conclusion
     In short, jealousy, rooted in fear and anger, is a bad emotion to feel and bad quality to possess. Jealous people do very foolish things, particularly in the case of romantic and sexual jealousy. Abnormal jealousy is a very complex, passionate and fatal emotion that devours those who allow it to dominate their lives. This "green-eyed monster" kills Roderigo, Desdemona, Emilia and Othello. Brabantio has also died and Iago will die in the near future after a drawn out punishment. It is ironic that almost all of the characters in the play feel jealous about things that never actually happened -- baseless jealousy for the most part provokes their outbursts. 

Answer the following questions.
(i) What was happening in Shakespeare's career when he wrote 'The Tempest'?
Ans. "The Tempest" is most likely the last play written entirely by Shakespeare in 1611. The forty-seven year old Shakespeare was purposely slowing down his professional theatre work to spend more time in his hometown of Stratford, tending to real estate and investments, seeing to the marriages of his daughters, and looking to a new phase of his life. 
(ii) What two distinctions does 'The Tempest' have among Shakespeare's plays?
Ans. "The Tempest" is most likely the last play written entirely by Shakespeare, and it is remarkable for being one of the only two plays by Shakespeare (the other being Love's Labor's Lost) whose plot is entirely original. The extraordinary flexibility of Shakespeare's stage is give particular prominence in "The Tempest".
(iii) Why is there no real suspense in the play 'The Tempest'?
Ans. Firstly, "The Tempest" is an autobiographical play. Prospreo is a self-portrait. His abjuration of art is effectively Shakespeare's. Secondly, Shakespeare is bored writing drama, and may perhaps have preferred to have written this instead as a narrative poem. So there is no real suspense in the play.
(iv) List four elements the four romances have in common.
Ans. The four romances of Shakespeare include "Cymbeline", "The Winter's Tale", "Pericles" and the "Tempest". These romances were written at the end of Shakespeare's career. These plays have elements of comedy and tragedy. There are elements of magic and the fantastic in these plays. The most important element of these romances is the obsession with the concept of loss and recovery. 
(v) What do you know about Ferdinand?
Ans. Ferdinand is the son of the king of Naples, Alonso. He is drawn to Prospero and Miranda by Ariel's music. "He is gentle and not fearful." He falls in love with Miranda immediately. 
(vi) Why is Gonzalo sure that Boatswain will not die of drowning?
Ans. Gonzalo prognosticates that Boatswain is born to be hanged because he has hanging look in his features. Thus Gonzalo is sure that Boatswain will not die of drowning in the storm. He will survive in order to be hanged later on.  
(vii) What are the three things associated the Prospero's magical power?
Ans. Prospero's magic staff (Ariel and other spirits) and his books represent his power. With his magical power, he can alter weather, put on a dazzling wedding entertainment, bully his servants, manipulate his enemies, and orchestrate his daughter's marriage to the Prince of Naples.
(viii) Who is Miranda? 
Ans. Miranda is the only female character to appear on stage in "The Tempest" by Shakespeare. She is the daughter of Prespero. She was banished to the Island along with her father at the age of three. In the subsequent twelve years she has lived with her father and their slave, Caliban. She falls in love with Ferdinand immediately. 
(ix) Give a description of Caliban. 
Ans. Caliban has the body of a beast and the head of a deformed dwarf; he crawls upon all fours rather than walks upright. His passions are bestial, yet he sees the beauty in nature with a poet's mind. 
(x) Who is sycorax and why does she lock Ariel in a tree for 12 years?
Ans. Sycorax is a vicious and powerful witch, and the mother of Caliban. She locks Ariel in a "cloven pine". Ariel is left in the "cloven pine" for 12 years because the old witch, Sycorax, dies in the meantime. 
(xi) Who is the most eloquent character in the play 'The Tempest'?
Ans. Caliban speaks some of the most beautiful and eloquent poetry of the play. Caliban's first words on stage are a raucous curse and a loud accusation: "This island's mine....which thou tak'st from me." If Caliban represents raw, unchecked instinct, he also represents one of the most eloquent voices in the play. 
(xii) Interpret "Good wombs have borne bad sons."
Ans. This line is spoken by Miranda when her father Prospero asks her if Antonia can be called a brother. She says that it would be wrong for me to think poorly of my grandmother because good women sometimes give birth to bad sons.
(xiii) Why doesn't Alonso believe his son might still be alive?
Ans. Alonso is so depressed that he doesn't even want to believe his son Ferdinand is still alive. Twelve years ago, he helped Antonio usurp the Dukedom of Milan from his brother Prospero. He thinks the death of his son is the result of this mean act. 
(xiv) Why does Ariel put everyone but Antonio and Sebastian to sleep?
Ans. Ariel's music quickly charms all but Antonio and Sebastian to sleep so that Antonio can persuade Sebastian to kill his sleeping brother, Alonso. Antonio argues that Ferdinand is surely drowned, and the Claribel, the next heir, is too far away to make an effective claim. Thus by murdering his brother, he would become the King of Naples.  
(xv) What is the origin of 'Setebos', the name of Sycorax's god?
Ans. Setebos, the deity purportedly worshiped by the witch Sycoras, was originally the god of Pantagonians. He was explicitly mentioned in Pigafetta's journal, which was also carried forth into Eden's book, and picked up by Shakespeare. 


Importance of Island in "The Tempest"

Answer the following questions.
(i) What is the significance of the title 'The Importance of Being Earnest'?
Ans. The title "The Importance of Being Earnest" features a salient pun in the form of the word "earnest", which means "honest", and "truthful" and the name "Ernest" which is the name of the alter ego that main character Jack uses to slide away from responsibilities and do as he pleases. What is important, however, is that the title reflects that there is something valuable and even honourable about being "earnest".
(ii) What is the subtitle of the play 'The Importance of Being Earnest'?
Ans. The subtitle of the play "The Importance of Being Earnest" is "A Trivial Comedy for Serious People". His intentions were to make people think more deeply and make them more aware of the serious things in life, which should be treated with sincerity, and the trivial things with seriousness.
(iii) What are the major themes in 'The Importance of Being Earnest'?
Ans. The nature of marriage, the constrains of morality, the absence of compassion, hypocrisy vs. inventiveness, lies and deceit, respect and reputation, society and class, duty and respectability, passion and morality, religion and secret lives are the major theme in "The Importance of Being Earnest".
(iv) Define comedy of manners.
Ans. The comedy of manners is an entertainment form which satirizes the manners and affections of a social class or of multiple classes, often represented by stereotypical stock characters. "The Importance of Being Earnest" by Oscar Wilde is a comedy of manners.
(v) What is the setting of the play 'The Importance of Being Earnest'?
Ans. The primary setting is London and Hertfordshire, England in the late late 19th century. Specific places include; Algernon Moncrieff's flat in Half-Moon Street (Act I), the garden at the Manor House, Woolton (Act II), and drawing room of the Manor House, Woolton (Act III).
(vi) What are the major conflicts in 'The Importance of Being Earnest'?
Ans. There are two major conflicts. The first conflict is that Lady Bracknell does not allow Gwendolyn to marry Jack because he does not know his real parents. Bracknell wants a husband for her daughter that is rich and has a title. The second conflict is that Gwendolyn thinks that Jack's real name is Ernest, but it is not. She seems to love him for his name only and Jack fears he cannot tell her the truth.  
(vii) Which moment from the play 'The Importance of Being Earnest' struck you as the funniest?
Ans. "The Importance of Being Earnest" is funny all the time. However, the conversation among the vacuous Cecily, the idiot Miss Prism, and the foolish hypocrite Dr. Chasuble in Act II struck me as the funniest. The final moment in which Jack is identified as the lost brother of Algernon and he is accepted by Gwendolen is also a very funny moment.
(viii) Give two examples of inversion in 'The Importance of Being Earnest'.
Ans. When Algernon remarks, "Divorces are made in Heaven," he inverts the cliche about marriages being "made in Heaven." Similarly, at the end of the play, when Jack calls it "a terrible thing" for a man to discover that he has been telling the truth all his life, he inverts conventional morality. Most of the women in the play represent an inversion of accepted Victorian practices with regard to gender roles.
(ix) What is Wilde's opinion of the aristocracy?
Ans. Aristocrats mask their true nature and fill their lives with trivial traditions. Throughout the play "The Importance of Being Earnest" Oscar Wilde makes fun of aristocrats in a cheerful way. He seems to think that they are practically useless to society.
(x) What is Wilde's view towards formal education?
Ans. Wilde says, "Education is an admirable thing, but it is well to remember from time to time that nothing that is worth knowing can be taught.". This shows he has no value for formal education since it deprives man's contemplation.
(xi) Who is "Ernest" in the play 'The Importance of Being Earnest'?
Ans. In "The Importance of Being Earnest" by Oscar Wilde, there is no character named "Ernest", but everything depends on pretending to be Earnest. Jack creates a young brother named "Ernest" to fool his lady friends, all of whom have an obsession with the name "Ernest". However, in the end of the play, Jack finds out that his real name is "Earnest" and his middle name is Jack.
(xii) What is a dandy?
Ans. A dandy is a man who places particular importance upon physical appearance, refined language, and leisurely hobbies, pursued with the appearance on nonchalance in a cult of Self. Algernon is a dandy in the play "The Importance of Being Earnest" by Oscar Wilde.
(xiii) How do characters in 'The Importance of Being Earnest' view marriage differently?
Ans. The characters in "The Importance of Being Earnest" are divided on whether a person should marry because of duty or because of pleasure. The older generation thinks of marriage as a business transaction, through which a person upholds or improves their rank in society. The younger generation, however, wants to marry of love regardless of social standing.
(xiv) Interpret 'The truth is rarely pure and never simple'.
Ans. This line is spoken by Algernon in "The Importance of Being Earnest" by Oscar Wilde. Because most of the play involves the various lies and deceits told by the protagonist, the purity of truth is always suspect. Moreover, truth is never simple, as most of it always requires explanation of the deeper layers.
(xv) Interpret 'Women only call each other sister when they have called each other a lot of other things first'.
Ans. This line is spoken by Algernon in "The Importance of Being Earnest" by Oscar Wilde. It means that women call each other names, bicker, fight and fall out before they feel comfortable to become sisters. Friendship or relationship starts with enmity.


Character Sketch of Miss Prism


Answer the following questions. 
(i) What is a novel?
Ans. A novel is a long narrative, normally in prose, which describes fictional characters and events, usually in the form of a sequential story. "Pride and Prejudice" by Jane Austen and "A Tale of Two Cities" by Charles Dickens are famous English novels.
(ii) What is Fielding's concept of novel?
Ans. In his preface to "Joseph Andrews", Fielding claims that novel is a genre of writing "which I do not remember to have been hitherto attempted in our language". He defined it as the "comic epic-poem in prose": a work of prose fiction, epic in length and variety of incident and character, in the hypothetical spirit of Homer's lost comic poem Margites.
(iii) Write the names of four novels of Fielding.
Ans. Joseph Andrews (1742), Jonathan Wild (1748), Tom Jones (1749) and Amelia (1751) are the famous novels of Henry Fielding.
(iv) What factors influenced Fielding in his conception and composition of 'Joseph Andrews'?
Ans. Fielding's first venture into prose fiction came a year previously with the publication in pamphlet form of Shamela, a travesty of, and direct response to, the stylistic failing and moral hypocrisy that Fielding saw in Richardson's Pamela. The impetus of the novel, as Fielding claims in his preface, is the establishment of a genre of writing "which I do not remember to have been hitherto attempted in our language".
(v) What is the purpose of the Author's Preface in 'Joseph Andrews'?
Ans. The purpose of Fielding's preface in "Joseph Andrews" is to define and defend his chosen genre, "comic-epic poem in prose". He is particularly concerned to differentiate the comic epic, and comedy generally, from burlesque. He also defends the various vices inserted in the novel.
(vi) How is the novel 'Joseph Andrews' related to 'Pamela'?
Ans. Fielding wrote "Shamela" as a satirical response to Richardson's "Pamela", and his longer and more serious "Joseph Andrews" likewise draws on Richardson's novel for an equivocal sort of inspiration. While "Shamela" is a straightforward travesty of "Pamlea", "Joseph Andrews" is something more complex, and its relation to "Pamela" is something other than the relation of parody to original.
(vii) Define digression.
Ans. A digression is a stylistic device authors employ to create a temporary departure from the main subject of the narrative to focus on apparently unrelated topics, explaining background details. However, after this temporary shift, authors return to the main topic at the end of the narrative. There are several famous digressions in Homer, such as the "wall scene" in Book 3 of the "Iliad".
(viii) What is the purpose of digression in 'Joseph Andrews'?
Ans. It is perhaps a development of Fielding's verbose writing style that he includes so many digressions in "Joseph Andrews". There are three main interpolated tales in the novel. In regards to these interpolated tales, Fielding employs a variety of tactics to make the stories more believable. These inserted stories also illustrate other tensions related to writing a novel, such as control and interruption.
(ix) Define the narrator?
Ans. A narrator is the voice that an author takes on to tell a story. This voice can have a personality quite different from the author's. For example, in his story "The Tell-Tale Heart", Edgar Allan Poe makes his narrator a raving lunatic.
(x) Define burlesque.
Ans. Burlesque is a literary, dramatic or musical work intended to cause laughter by caricaturing the manner or spirit of serious works, or by ludicrous treatment of the subjects. Contrasting examples of literary burlesque are Alexander Pope's "The Rape of the Lock" and Samuel Butler's "Hudibras". W.S. Gilbert's "Robert the Devil" is an example of theatrical burlesque.
(xi) What is bildungsroman?
Ans. Bildungsroman is a special kind of novel that focuses on the psychological and moral growth of its main character from his or her youth to adulthood. "Tom Jones" by Henry Fielding and "David Copperfield" by Charles Dickens are examples of bildungsroman.
(xii) What is important about the plot of the novel 'Joseph Andrews'?
Ans. "Joseph Andrews" is a picaresque novel in structure, for its plot-line is similar to the one-line structure of picaresque fiction. The plot of the novel progresses by "shutting', moving forward by "small oscillations of emotion", which, in the larger, all-over design, are small parts of a unified whole, episodic in nature. At times, events seem like reversals, followed by forward movement.
(xiii) What are the major themes of 'Joseph Andrews'?
Ans. The vulnerability and power of goodness, charity and religion, town and country, class and birth, reality verses appearance, providence, affection, vanity, hypocrisy, and chastity are the major themes of "Joseph Andrews".
(xiv) According to Fielding, what are the proper roles of clergy?
Ans. One role of the clergy would be charity, clearly evident in the character of Parson Adams. Adams also illustrates the clergy's role in instructing the members of their parish, as well as demonstrating and modeling Christian morals and propriety. Adam's character is the epitome of honesty.
(xv) What is the significance of the letter from Joseph to his sister?
Ans. Joseph's letter to his sister Pamela is significant because it illustrates his innocence. He thinks that Lady Booby is perhaps pursuing him, but charitably ascribes this to distraction over the death of Sir Thomas. In any case, he anticipates his dismissal and advises Pamela of his return to the Booby country-seat.


Henry Fielding As the Father of English Novel

Answer the following questions.
(i) Write the names of four novels of Jane Austen.
Ans. Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814), Emma (1815), Northanger Abbey (1818, Posthumous) and Persuasion (1818, posthumous) are the novels of Jane Austen.
(ii) What was the original title for the novel 'Pride and Prejudice'.
Ans.The manuscript of the novel was first titled "First Impressions". However, in 11791, the manuscript was rejected by a publisher. Austen spent time refining it before it was published as "Pride and Prejudice" in 1813.
(iii) Write the first line of the novel 'Pride and Prejudice'.
Ans. It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of wife.
(vi) Why is Elizabeth so anxious to distrust Mr. Darcy at the start of the novel?
Ans. The first impression of Mr. Darcy is a sign of arrogance and pride. Due to pride and sense of superiority, he does not accept the hand of Elizabeth for dancing, and says to his friend about her "tolerable, but not handsome enough to tempt me". This creates a negative impression in her mind. Thus she is so anxious to distrust Mr. Darcy.
(v) Why does Elizabeth refuse to marry Collins?
Ans. Elizabeth refuses to marry Collins because she does not love him. Elizabeth believes in only marrying for love and no other reason. She is not fond of his personality. Moreover, he is an idiot.
(vi) How Elizabeth was ignorant of Wickham's character?
Ans. Everyone in Meryton is fooled, and Elizabeth even thinks about Wickham in a marriageable kind of way. Wickham entertains Elizabeth with stories about the despicable Mr. Darcy. Mr. Wickham charms the entire town of Meryton. After Mr. Darcy leaves the neighbourhood, he spreads his sob story about Darcy's cruelty far and wide. Thus Elizabeth was ignorant of Wickham's character.
(vii) Why was Elizabeth upset at her meeting with Darcy at Pemberley House?
Ans. Elizabeth was upset at her meeting with Darcy at Pemberley House because she began to love him. She was surprised to hear about the good nature of Darcy by Mrs. Reynolds whom she considered unbearably arrogant. Darcy's sudden arrival at Pemberley's House and his meeting with her in the garden made her really upset.
(viii) Why is Darcy intrigued and attracted by Elizabeth?
Ans. Darcy is intrigued by refreshing disregard for his title. Elizabeth is one of those rare women, the only one around him, whose self respect matches his pride. At the same time, he is attracted by Elizabeth's eyes, wit and intelligence.
(xi) Why does Darcy's proposal make Elizabeth angry?
Ans. Elizabeth already hates Darcy because she thinks he is responsible for breaking up Jane and Bingley, he has hurt Mr. Wickham, and has been rude to Lizzy. Now Darcy tells her outright in the proposal that he does not want to be in love with her, because of their class differences, but he can't help it. Thus Darcy's first proposal make Elizabeth angry.
(x) How do Elizabeth Bennet's ideas on marriage differ from her society's?
Ans. Elizabeth wants to marry someone she actually loves and respects, and not just for a good name or money. Her society's belief is that young ladies should make good matches for their families' sake, to keep up a good reputation and be wealthy.
(xi) Write a note on Georgiana.
Ans. Georgiana is Darcy's younger sister. She is immensely pretty and just as shy. She has great skill at playing the pianoforte. She has great reverence and affection for her brother and gets along well with Elizabeth from their first meeting. Bingley's sisters had hoped that Mr. Bingley would marry Georgiana, thus uniting the fortunes of the two families.
(xii) In which ways is Elizabeth different from the rest of the Bennet family?
Ans. Elizabeth is judgmental and that she speaks out what she wants and what she knows. She is the only character who changes significantly over the course of the story. On the other hand, other Bennets are stuck in their ways.
(xiii) How has Meryton community been described in 'Pride and Prejudice'?
Ans. Meryton is a little village where a militia regiment is quartered for a time, and where the Meryton Ball takes place. This Ball is an event that shows community life in Meryton. The people in Meryton are middle-class and every woman is in search of a man to ensure social stability. People's opinions change really quickly and are general.
(xiv) How did Wickham agree to marry Lydia?
Ans. Wickham married Lydia for money. If Wickham did not marry Lydia, the reputations of both Lydia and the entire family would have been ruined. Wickham agreed to marry Lydia because Mr. Dacry agreed to pay off all his debts and pay him thousands pounds.
(xv) Why does Lydia risk by eloping with Wickham?
Ans. Lydia is all about money and social stature. Wickham is a pompous jerk but Lydia feels he is her best chance at improving her fortunes both monetarily and socially.


Character Sketch of Elizabeth Bennet

Answer the following questions. 
(i) What were the conditions in France that led to the revolution?
Ans. Struggle for hegemony, social antagonism between aristocracy and the bourgeoisie, debt, ineffective ruler Louis XVI, economic hardships, the rise of enlightenment ideals, resentment of royal absolutism, food scarcity, and American influence were the major conditions in France that led to revolution.
(ii) What is Dickens' attitude towards the French Revolution?
Ans. Dickens regards the French Revolution with some ambivalence. He seems to support the revolutionary cause but also condemns the way the Revolution is conducted, often criticizing the evil of the revolutionaries themselves. The message seems to be that in fighting oppression with oppression, and acts of barbarism with acts of barbarism, there is no true revolution.
(iii) Interpret 'It was the best of times, it was the worst of times...'.
Ans. This is the opening line of the novel "A Tale of Two Cities" by Charles Dickens. It describes the time of French Revolution. It means, in simple terms, that the time period was filled with great contradictions and extremes, from good to bad.
(iv) What is Bastille? What is its significance?
Ans. The Bastille was a fortress in Paris, known formally as the Bastille Saint-Antoine. It played an important role in the internal conflicts of France and for most of its history was uses as a state prison by the kings of France. It was stormed by a crowd on July 14, 1789 in the French Revolution.
(v) Why the Bastille was attacked by the mob?
Ans. The Bastille was a prison where the French government kept its political prisoners. On July 14, 1789, a mob of revolutionaries attacked the fortress. It was a blood-thirsty, unruly mob that Dickens metaphorically describes as "a raging sea" and "a whirlpool of boiling water". The attack was a flash-point of the French Revolution.
(vi) What is the significance of Hotel De Ville?
Ans. The Hotel De Ville is a building in Paris, France, housing the city's local administration. The Hotel De Ville is a nice sounding name for a not-so-nice place. It was where the government took prisoners to be tortured.
(vii) Write a short note on Tellson's Bank.
Ans. Tellson's Bank near Temple Bar was an old-fashioned place, even back in 1780. It was a very small, very dark, very ugly, and very uncomfortable. The partners who ran the bank were old-fashioned too. They were proud of its smallness, darkness, ugliness, and discomfort.
(viii) What does the red wine symbolize in 'A Tale of Two Cities'?
Ans. Throughout the novel win symbolizes the French Revolution's intoxicating power. Drunk on power, the revolutionaries change from freedom fighters into wild savages dancing in the streets and murdering at will. The red wine spilled in the street in Paris symbolizes the blood that will be spilled in the Revolution.
(ix) What is the people's reaction to the broken wine cask?
Ans. People's reaction to the broken wine cask is to get on the ground and lick the wine as it flows on the ground. They are excited that the rich lost something, and that they get to have it. So hungry, and poor, are the people that they don't mind drinking off the street. Obviously, this shows how bad the conditions in France are.
(x) How is 'honour' defined in 'A Tale of Two Cities'?
Ans.There are multiple versions of honour in the novel. However, the most effective is that a person has honour who stands up for what is right and is willing to sacrifice all he or she has for the betterment of others. Monsiur Defarge is honourable because she stands up for what she believes, and Carton is honourable because he gives his life for a friend.
(xi) Who is Madam Defarge?
Ans. Madam Defarge is a fictional character in the novel "A Tale of Two Cities" by Charles Dickens. She is a tricoteuse, a tireless worker for the French Revolution, and the wife of Ernest Defarge. She is one of the main villains of the novel, obsessed with revenge against the Evremondes.
(xii) What is the significance of Madame Defarge pinning a rose in her hair?
Ans. Madame Defarge pinning a rose in her hair indicates to the revolutionaries to stop talking about their revolutionary things. It is a signal that a spy is nearby and the revolutionaries must watch what they say.
(xiii) Why is Madame Defarge so merciless towards Charles and his family?
Ans. Madame Defarge is merciless towards Charles and his family because Charles' family has killed her family and she thinks they should be avenged.
(xiv) How and by whom Madame Defarge was killed?
Ans. In a scuffle with Miss Pross, Madame Defarge was killed by a bullet from her own gun. It symbolizes Dicken's belief that the sort of vengeful attitude ultimately proves a self-damning one.
(xv) What is the slogan of the revolutionaries in "A Tale of Two Cities? 
Ans. The slogan of the revolutionaries is "Liberty, equality, fraternity, or death". The revolutionaries were the people engaged in changing the government of France. They wanted the many freedoms that people deserve: liberty, equality, and fraternity. They also wanted everyone on their side and were willing to "take out" those who did not agree.


Symbolism in "A Tale of Two Cities"

Answer the following questions. 
(i) Write the names of four novels of George Eliot.
Ans. Adam Bede (1859), The Mill on the Floss (1860), Silas Marner (1861), Romola (1863), Felix Holt, the Radical (1866), Middlemarch (1871-72) and Daniel Deronda (1876) are the novels of George Eliot.
(ii) What does the Floss symbolize in 'The Mill on the Floss'?
Ans. River Floss stands for the cause of sustenance as well as ruin for the Tullivers. However, the Floss is related most often to Maggie, and the river, with its depth and potential to flood, symbolizes Maggie's deeply running and unpredictable emotions. The river's path, nonexistent on maps, is also use to symbolize the unforseeable path of Maggie's destiny.
(iii) What purpose does animal imagery serve in 'The Mill on the Floss'?
Ans. Tom and Maggie are associated with animal imagery. The imagery is usually of farm-type animals -- ponies, dogs, ducks -- and usually points to the character's capacity for affection or non-adherence to social convention. Following Darwin, Eliot uses this imagery also to gesture towards the wider relation between humans and animals that can be especially seen in young children.
(iv) What is the symbolic importance of music in 'The Mill on the Floss'?
Ans. Music represents the better life, for which Maggie spends the entire book searching. This sort of "musical" life is one of deep emotion and energy. Music has the ability to create an entire world here, and it is often depicted as a safe heaven from harsh reality. Both Philip and Maggie take comfort and joy in music. Music is also a way to experience and express heightened emotions.
(v) What are George Eliot's views on education?
Ans. "The Mill on the Floss" is a sensible analysis of what education really means. She shows that education should be adapted to the individual's talent; tradition and snob appeal have no place in modern education. Latin and Greek are suitable for those people who have a genuine interest in humanistic studies. She makes a strong case for the need of well-trained teachers.
(vi) What are the major themes of 'The Mill on the Floss'?
Ans. Loss of innocence, the difficulty of choice, the claim of the past upon present identity, the importance of sympathy, the effect of society upon the individual, communal verses individual interests, progress verses tradition, practical knowledge verses bookish knowledge, gender disparity and love are the major themes of "The Mill on the Floss".
(vii) Interpret 'The happiest women, like the happiest nations, have no history'.
Ans. This line is from George Eliot's novel "The Mill on the Floss". It points that happiness fades away one's past or history. The happiest nations enjoy themselves with their present and hardly have any reminiscence of their past. Similarly the happiest women are usually private individuals who do not have a public image, therefore, they have no history.
(viii) Interpret 'I desire no future that will break the ties of the past'.
Ans. In this line Maggie sums up her views on the role of the past in her life and in her choices. Though she has a substantial history with Philip, her ties with Tom are older and are therefore stronger to her. Maggie refuses to let go of her past, but she has to grant weight to her oldest memories and bonds.  
(ix) Who is Maggie Tulliver?
Ans. Maggie Tulliver is the protagonist of the novel "The Mill on the Floss". She is a hugely complex character. She is the intelligent, clever and emotionally sensitive daughter of a country mill-owner. Her closest tie is to her brother Tom. She has dark skin, dark hair, and dark eyes. Her life is the central story of the novel.
(x) What sort of commitments does Maggie feel she has broken when she elopes with Stephen?
Ans. Stephen is engaged to Lucy. Maggie thinks that she has proved false to Lucy and violated a social canon through her elopement with Stephen. She feels guilty that her elopement will also hurt her lover, Philip. Thus she returns before the elopement with Stephen has led to sexual intercourse.
(xi) What is the significance of Maggie's sewing?
Ans. Maggie's sewing shows that she has been in financial difficulty. Sewing, in general, represents a way of repressing and controlling the self. The paraphernalia of sewing, especially needles and scissors, take a sinister connotation in "The Mill on the Floss. Scissors are damaging to Lucy and needles are fatal to Maggie's physical desires.
(xii) What is the significance of Maggie's encounter with gypsies when she runs away?
Ans. Maggie has a romantic view of gypsies. In running away to the gypsies, Maggie is motivated mainly by desire of admiration. She is somewhat conceited about her learning. However, after her encounter with gypsies, she sees her mistake. She goes in repentance and self-blame.
(xiii) What are Maggie's intentions towards the gypsies?
Ans. There are three intentions of Maggie towards the gypsies; she wishes to live with them, she wants to teach them, and be their queen.
(xiv) What role does the town of St. Ogg's perform in hastening Maggie's tragedy?
Ans. St. Ogg's is a town ruled by gossip, rumors and prejudices. It is a tightly-knit community for better or worse. And it is for worse for Maggie. Maggie is shunned by nearly everyone here. Tom refuses to have anything with her. The river floods and Maggie is swept away in a boat. She goes to rescue Tom. However, both Maggie and Tom drown in the flood.
(xv) Who is Tom Tulliver?
Ans. Tom Tulliver is the Tullivers' older son. He has his own clear sense of duty, justice, and fairness. He has affection for his sister Maggie, but he dislikes her impetus way of doing what she wants. When Mr. Tulliver goes bankrupt, Tom goes to work at a young age and brings the family out of debt.


Eliot's Art of Characterization

Answer the following questions. 
(i) Why has Hardy divided 'Tess of the d'Urbevilles' in 'Phases'?
Ans. Hardy has divided "Tess of the d'Urbervilles" into seven large sections called 'phases'. It is interesting that Hardy has chosen the word 'phase' to describe each of these sections. It seems to symbolize that Tess, like a plant, an animal, or the moon, goes through natural cycles of growth. The 'phases' mark the major points of her emotional and spiritual growth, starting with "The Maiden" and ending with "Fulfillment". 
(ii) What is the setting of the novel 'Tess of the d'Urbevilles'?
Ans. Most of the action takes place in the late 19th Century in Southwestern England in the country of Wessex, the fictional name of Dorset Country. Almost all of Hardy's novels take place in this same general area. The other places include Marlott, Curitiba, and Salisbury. 
(iii) In which village the novel 'Tess of the d'Urbervilles' starts? 
Ans. The novel "Tess of the d'Urbervilles" by Thomas Hardy starts from the village of Marlott. This is Tess's childhood home and lay amid the northeastern undulation of the beautiful Vale of Blakemore or Blackmoor. 
(iv) What are the major symbols in 'Tess of the d'Urbervilles'? 
Ans. Prince the horse, seal and spoon, Brazil, the d'Urberville coach, the d'Urberville family vault, red and white, club-walking, the chases verses the slopes and cows are the major symbols in "Tess of the d'Urbevilles". 
(v) What are the major themes of 'Tess of the d'Urbervilles'? 
Ans. The injustice of existence, changing ideas of social class in Victorian England, men dominating women, fate and free will, memory and the past, nature and modernity, Paganism and Christianity, contrasting regions, marriage, time and sex are the major themes of "Tess of the d'Urbervilles".
(vi) What is foreshadowing? 
Ans. Foreshadowing is a literary device in which a writer gives and advance hint of what is come later in the story. It is used to avoid disappointment and arouse the reader. For example, "He had no idea of the disastrous chain of events to follow". In this sentence, while the protagonist is clueless of further developments, the readers learns that something disastrous is about to happen for the protagonist. 
(vii) What is the significance of the legend of the d'Urberville Coach? 
Ans. The d'Urberville coach is an old legend of the family which Angel mentions and Alec later explains to Tess. The coach is a symbol of foreshadowing and the theme of fate that looms over all the characters in the novel. Whenever a d'Urberville hears the sound of an invisible coach it is supposed to be a bad omen. The coach also symbolizes the ancient idea of being punished for one's ancestors. 
(viii) Why did contemporary critics think that 'Tess of the d'Urbervilles' was 'immoral'? 
Ans. Contemporary critics like Mowbray Morris though that "Tess of the d'Urbervilles" was 'immoral' because people usually associated the Victorian Period with sexual repression and general prudishness. Thus the sexiness in the novel made is 'immoral' in their eyes. 
(ix) What defect marks the social life of the people in and around Trantridge? 
Ans. The villagers around Trantridge live for the moment, disdaining the idea of saving for the future. Many of them are hard drinkers. 
(x) What does Hardy mean when he says that Angel's fastidious love could 'guard the loved one against his very self'? 
Ans. Angel really loves Tess. However, he has problems with Tess's sexual history. Though it takes a while for him to reconcile her past with his ideas about sexual morality, he never stops loving her and his devotion is always complete. 
(xi) Who is Tess? 
Ans. Tess is the heroine and moral centre of the novel "Tess of the d'Urbervilles" by Hardy. She is beautiful and irresistible to men. She lives with her impoverished family in the village Marlott. She is also young, innocent, and uneducated -- unaware that the world is rifle with lust, cruelty, and vanity.  
(xii) Why is it difficult for Tess to reject Alec outright when he asks her to become his mistress? 
Ans. It is difficult for Tess to reject the marriage proposal of Alec outright because Alec can offer economic security, not only for Tess but her family as well. 
(xiii) Who causes more destruction to Tess, Alec or Angel? Why? 
Ans. Angel causes more destruction to Tess. Angel has a moral centre and knows right from wrong. Alex is an idiot, an easily leadable wolf who has no redeemable qualities. Alex is incompetent and cannot be held responsible. Angle is the only character in the novel who should have known better, did know better and still behaves like a child. 
(xiv) Why does Tess decide to leave Marlott? 
Ans. Tess leaves the d'Urberbille estate when she is going to have a baby. Then she decides to leave Marlott when she is hurt by her father words, when her father says that the people will laugh at them again by the story of her marriage. 
(xv) What does Stonehenge figure in Tess' end? What do you think it represents? 
Ans. Stonehenge is a symbol of the ever-present past. It is Tess's final place of symbolic sacrifice for her love for Angel Clare. Hardy's decision to end the novel at Stonehenge not only gives the novel a dramatic and unforgettable ending, but also shows Hardy's characters' desire to see paganism as an alternative for a wholly Christian belief system. 


Tess As a Pure Woman


Answer the following questions. 
(i) Who was Bacon and what did he do?
Ans. Francis Bacon was born on 22 January 1561 in London. He was the son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, keeper of the great seal of Elizabeth I. Bacon studied at Cambridge University and at Gray's Inn and became a member of parliament in 1584. He served as attorney general and Lord Chancellor of England during the Renaissance, but is is best know for his contributions to philosophy.
(ii) What is your opinion about Bacon in the light of his character sketch?
Ans. Bacon is "One of those complex and contradictory natures which are the despair of the biographer" (Long). Bacon had a dual personality. He was a mental giant but a moral dwarf. Pope very aptly describes him, "The wisest, brightest, meanest of mankind." I agree with J.F. Selby's statement: "He had a great brain; not a great soul."
(iii) What do the essays of Bacon tell about his age?
Ans. The essays of Bacon tell a lot about his age, Renaissance. These tell that this age has a love for classical learning and natural beauty. It has the spirit of inquiry, individualism and nationalism. It has pragmatic spirit, reformist zeal and Machiavellian approach to life.
(iv) What is aphorism?
Ans. Aphorism is a statement of truth or opinion expressed in a concise and witty manner. The term is often applied to philosophical, moral and literary principles. For example, "Studies serve for delight, for ornament and for ability". (Of Studies by Bacon)
(v) Why Bacon is called modern?
Ans. Comparing Bacon with his predecessors, Sidney, Lyly and Acham, it will be seen how widely he departs from the prolix methods of the day. He has evolved such a prose style which proves that English can be used as a medium of expression. Most of the lines from his essays have always been acclaimed as immortal quotes. That is why he is called modern.
(vi) Why is Bacon's style aphoristic?
Ans. Bacon's style is aphoristic because there is a terseness of expression and an epigrammatic brevity in his style. His sentences are brief, rapid and forceful. Indeed, his essays are replete the aphorism. For example, "A lie faces God and shrinks from man."/"Suspicions among thoughts are like bats among birds."
(vii) Why is Bacon's style different?
Ans. Comparing Bacon with his predecessors, Sidney, Lyly and Acham, it will be seen how widely he departs from the prolix methods of the day. He has evolved such a prose style which proves that English can be used as a medium of expression. Most of the lines from his essays have been acclaimed as immortal quotes. That is why Bacon's style is different.
(viii) Is Bacon's precision his wisdom?
Ans. Precision is the quality, condition, or fact of being exact, accurate and clear. Precision is the hallmark of good prose style not wisdom. Bacon's wisdom is, in fact, his understanding of the affairs of the world. However, precision makes Bacon's wisdom easy to understand for readers.
(ix) What do Bacon's essays teach?
Ans. Bacon's essays teach us worldly wisdom. Worldly wisdom means the kind of wisdom that is necessary for achieving worldly success. These teach us the art of how to get on this world, how to become rich and prosperous, how to rise to high positions, how to exercise one's authority and power so as to attain good results, how to gain influence, etc.
(x) Point out the Renaissance elements in Bacon's essays.
Ans. Pragmatical spirit, the Machiavellian approach to life, classical learning, love of beauty and sensuousness, spirit of humanism, curiosity and love of travel, wealth of metaphor and analogy, love of learning, emphasis on ethics and morality, and love of exploration are the Renaissance elements in Bacon's essays.
(xi) Bacon's essays are full of wisdom. How?
Ans. Bacon is a man of Renaissance and man is the subject of his essays. He is a philosopher, utilitarian and moralist. Therefore, "Beyond any other book of the same size in any literature they are loaded with the ripest wisdom of experience." (Hudson)
(xii) Bacon's style is pithy. How?
Ans. A pithy style is one that is brief, terse and vigorously expressive. Bacon is a master of pithy sentences in his essays. He ignores the unnecessary conceits and over crowded imagery of the Enthusiast. However, every sentence in his essays is pregnant with meaning and is capable of being expanded into several sentences. For example, "A mixture of a lie doeth ever add pleasure.".
(xiii) Why is Bacon called a worldly moralist?
Ans. Bacon is called a worldly moralist because his essays teach us worldly wisdom. Worldly wisdom means the kind of wisdom that is necessary for achieving worldly success. He teaches us the art of how to get on this world, how to become rich and prosperous, how to rise to high positions, how to exercise one's authority and power, and how to gain influence, etc.
(xiv) How are Bacon's essay an expression of brevity?
Ans. Brevity is to describe something great with the use of few words. Bacon possessed a remarkable ability to express deep weighty and profound thoughts with an economy of language. Most of his sentences can be expanded into whole paragraphs, and can be read like proverbs, maxims or aphorisms. For example, "A mixture of a lie doeth ever add pleasure".
(xv) What is the major difference between Russell's and Bacon's prose style? 
Ans. Bacon exhibits a stuffy style of writing whereas as Russell exhibits a plain and tough style of writing. Bacon's style has low frequency words, third person pronouns, Greek and Latin words, and complex sentences whereas Russell's style has high frequency words, first person pronouns, Anglo-Saxon words and simple sentences.


Renaissance Elements in Bacon

1. The Renaissance
     The term Renaissance literally means "rebirth" or more generally "revival". It was the period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and Modern History. The Renaissance meant a revival of learning, and specially of the study of Greek which broke down the rigid conventions of the Middle Ages. There was a new spirit of inquiry, of criticism, a passion for scientific accuracy, which was accompanied by a sense of individualism and worldliness.To the scholars and thinkers of the day, it was primarily a time of the revival of classical learning and wisdom after a long period of cultural decline and stagnation. Its chief features are only too well reflected in the great prose writer of the age, Francis Bacon. Following are the Renaissance elements in Bacon's essays.

Answer the following questions. 
(i) What is the real title of 'Gulliver's Travels'?
Ans. The real title of "Gulliver's Travels" is "Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, by Lemuel Gulliver". 
(ii) What is mock-utopia?
Ans. Mock-utopia refers to the idea that a society might appear to be idyllic or might want to appear idyllic, but there is no such thing as a perfect society. "Mock" means pretend or fake and "utopia" refers to a perfect place. "Gulliver's Travels" by Jonathan Swift is a mock-utopia. 
(iii) How 'Gulliver's Travels' is a satire?
Ans. "Gulliver's Travels" serves as a biting satire. Swift uses mock seriousness and understatement; he parodies and burlesques; he presents a virtue and then turns it into vice. The tone of the book varies from mild wit to outright derision. He is constantly attacking British and European society through its descriptions of imaginary countries. 
(iv) Is Swift a pessimist?
Ans. No doubt, Swift has a very pessimistic view of human kind in "Gulliver's Travels". However, the book is not a sermon of hopeless pessimism but a farsighted overview of the social and ideological tenets of bourgeois progress. Thus Swift is a hopeful pessimist. 
(v) Has 'Gulliver's Travels' been written for children?
Ans. "Gulliver's Travels" is not really a children's book, but it has been seen as a children's story from the start: little people, big people, talking horses. However, since it publication it has been popular with both children and adults. 
(vi) Is 'Gulliver's Travels' interesting?
Ans. "Gulliver's Travels" is a story of adventure and has several elements in it of a fairy tale. Both adventure and fairy-elements in a story greatly appeal to the readers. Thus "Gulliver's Travels" is a very interesting story. 
(vii) Is 'Gulliver's Travels' a tragic work?
Ans. "Gulliver's Travels" is not a wholly tragic work. It does not have a clear tragic hero. It would be quite appropriate to call is a tragic-comedy. 
(viii) What is the purpose of Swift in writing 'Gulliver's Travels'?
Ans. Swift's main purpose in writing "Gulliver's Travels" is to reform the weakness and inability of the English government and political world through the different places that he has artfully created in this book. He also wants reforms in the inappropriateness of war, the fickleness of the English social atmosphere, and the corruption of the legal universe in Swift's era. 
(ix) Who are Swift's satirical targets?
Ans. Education, politics, religion, science, society, the nature of man and the king in the 18th century England are the satirical targets of Swift in "Gulliver's Travels". 
(x) What is the allegorical significance of the floating island of Laputa?
Ans. The floating island of Laputa is about 4.5 miles in diameter, with an adamantine base, which its inhabitants can maneuver in any direction using magnetic levitation. The rebellion of Lindalino against Laputa is an allegory of Ireland's revolt against Great Britain. 
(xi) What are the two empires fighting about in 'Gulliver's Travels'?
Ans. Lilliput and Blefuscu are the two empires fighting about in "Gulliver's Travels". They represent the constant fighting between England and France in the early 18th century. 
(xii) What is the significance of size in 'Gulliver's Travels'?
Ans. The small size of Lilliputians and Blefuscudians is an indication of their moral stature. The Lilliputians are petty, vain, spiteful, self-important, and ready to make a war at the drop of a hat. The Blefuscudians favour opening eggs on the big end, in opposition to the position of the Lilliputians, and declare a war on Lilliput. On the other hand, the giant Brodingnagians are good, noble and peace-loving. 
(xiii) Who is Gulliver?
Ans. Lemuel Gulliver is the narrator and protagonist of the story. He is the only genuinely developed character in the whole book. He is the son of a middle-class family in Nottingham shire, England. Although he is intelligent and well educated, his perception are naive and gullible. 
(xiv) Who are Lilliputians?
Ans. The Lilliputians inhabit the first island Gulliver visits. They are men six inches in height but possessing all the pretension and self-importance of full-sized men. They are ruled by an Emperor. They are mean and nasty, vicious, morally corrupt, hypocritical and deceitful, jealous and envious, filled with greed and ingratitude -- they are, in fact, completely human. 
(xv) How did Gulliver help the king of Lilliput?
Ans. Gulliver helped the king of Lilliput in different ways. He helped the king specially in military, by stealing the Blefuscudian's navy.


Swift As a Satirist

Answer the following questions.
(i) In his preface, what does Strachey claim are his goals in writing 'Eminent Victorians'?
Ans. Strachey says that he has attempted to present some Victorian visions to the modern eye. His choice has been determined by simple motives of convenience and of art. His purpose is to illustrate rather than to explain. He claims a brevity which excludes everything that is redundant and nothing that is significant. 
(ii) What are the contents of 'Eminent Victorians'?
Ans. "Eminent Victorians" is a book by Lytton Strachey, first published in 1918 and consisting of four leading figures from the Victorian era. These figures are: Cardinal Manning, Florence Nightingale, Thomas Arnold, and General Gordon.
(iii) What are Strachey's targets of irony?
Ans. Strachey is best known for his ironic attitude towards the subject of his biographical studies. His targets of irony are evangelicalism, liberalism, humanitarianism, education and imperialism. He is best known for "Eminent Victorians". He established the ironical writing of biography as a literary art. 
(iv) Who was General Gordon?
Ans. General Gordon (1833 - 1885) was a British army officer and administrator. He became a national hero for his exploits  in China and his ill-fated defense of Khartoum against Sudanese rebels. 
(v) When and where was General Gordon born?
Ans. General Gordon was born on January 28, 1833 at Woolwich in London - one of 11 children, 5 girls and 6 boys in a closely-knit and very happy family of a Royal Artillery officer. 
(vi) Why is General Gordon always studying his Bible?
Ans. General Gordon's reading was confined almost entirely to the Bible; but the Bible he read and re-read with an untiring, an unending assiduity. There, he was convinced, all truth was to be found; and he was equally convinced that he could find it. 
(vii) What is the physical appearance of General Gordon?
Ans. Gordon's unassuming figure, short and slight, with its half-gliding, half-tripping motion, gave him a boyish aspect, which contrasted, oddly, but not unpleasantly, with the touch of grey on his hair and whiskers. There was the same contract between the sun-burnt brick-red complexion - the hue of the seasoned traveller - and the large blue eyes, with their look of almost childish sincerity. 
(viii) What services did General Gordon render for Britain?
Ans. Gordon saw action in the Crimean War as an officer in the British Army. He was anxious to fight in the Crimea. He was put to work in the Siege of Sevastopol and took part in the assault of the Redan from 10 June to 8 September. 
(ix) What services did General Gordon render for China?
Ans. In 1860 General Gordon volunteered to serve in China. In 1863 he entered Chinese service to suppress the Taiping rebellion. For his exploits in China, Gordon became a national hero. Nanjing's fall in July 1864 marked the end of one of the greatest civil wars in world history. 
(x) Why was General Gordon given the nickname 'Chinese'?
Ans. General Gordon made his military reputation in China, where he was placed in command of the "Ever Victorious Army", a force of Chinese soldiers led by European officers. In the early 1860, Gordon and his men were instrumental in putting down the Taiping Rebellion, regularly defeating much larger forces. For these accomplishments, he was given the nickname "Chinese Gordon". 
(xi) What services did General Gordon render with the Khedive?
Ans. In 1873 the Khedive Ismail of Egypt appointed Gordon governor of the province of Equatoria in the Sudan. Gordon mapped the upper Nile River and established a line of stations along the river. He established his ascendancy over this vast area, crushing rebellions and suppressing the slave trade. 
(xii) What services did General Gordon perform as the governor general of Sudan?
Ans. As the governor general of Sudan, Gordon rendered many services. He mapped the upper Nile River and established a line of stations along the river. He established his ascendancy over this vast area, crushing rebellions and suppressing the slave trade. 
(xiii) Why was General Gordon sent to Khartoum?
Ans. In 1884 Gordon was sent to  Khartoum in Sudan by the British government to evacuate Egyptian forces from Khartoum.
(xiv) When and why did General Gordon return to Europe?
Ans. In 1880, ill health forced General Gordon to resign his post of governor general of Sudan and return to England. 
(xv) How did General Gordon meet his death?
Ans. In 1884 Gordon was again sent to the Sudan by the British government to evacuate Egyptian forces from Khartoum. Khartoum came under siege a month later, and on January 26, 1885, the Mahdists broke into the city and killed General Gordon at the Governor-General palace about an hour before dawn. The manner of his death is uncertain.


Strachey As a Biographer

Answer the following questions.
(i) Write the names of contents of 'Unpopular Essays' by Russell.
Ans. There are 12 contents of "Unpopular Essays" which are; Philosophy and Politics, Philosophy of Laymen, The Future of Mankind, Philosophy's Ulterior Motives, The Superior Virtue of the Oppressed, On Being Modern Minded, An Outline of Intellectual Rubbish, The Functions of a Teacher, Ideas that have Helped Mankind, Ideas that have Harmed Mankind, Eminent Men I have Known, and Obituary. 
(ii) Is Russell's 'Unpopular Essays' about unpopularity?
Ans.  The book called 'Unpopular Essays' is not about unpopularity. It is a collection of very popular essays on various subjects. There are several sentences in this book, says Russell, which some unsually stupid children of the age of ten may find difficult to understand. That being so, he could not claim the essays would be popular, and so, if not popular, then, unpopular. 
(iii) Why are Russell's essays so difficult?
Ans. The subject matter of Russell's essays is difficult for average readers. Russell's style appeals mainly to intellects and very little to feelings or emotions. He uses words simply as tools, to convey his meaning plain and effective and not to produce any special effects. Moreover, there is no passion in his style; it is somewhat cold. That's why Russell's essays are so difficult. 
(iv) Why is Russell so complicated?
Ans. Difficult subject matter, style devoid of feelings, effectless words and unknown logicism make Russell very complicated for average readers. 
(v) How is Russell a pacifist?
Ans. A pacifist is a person who believes that war and violence are unjustifiable. Russell condemned both sides in World War I (1914-1918), and for his uncompromising stand he was fined, imprisoned, and deprived of his teaching post at Cambridge. In World War II (1939-1945), he was an ardent opponent of nuclear weapons. 
(vi) Why is Russell apposed to irrationality in human life?
Ans. According to Russell the whole conception of sin is merely a manifestation of the superstitious bent of mind. He says when man abandons his own reason and is content to rely upon authority, there is no end to his troubles. It is the irrational belief that human nature cannot be changed, and that, for this reason, there will always be wars. That is why Russell is opposed to irrationality in human life.
(vii) 'Man' is the basic concern of Russell. Why?
Ans. Man is the basic concern of Russell because he is not only a philosopher but also a humanist. His pacifism, championship of democracy and moral fervour prove that he has the good of mankind at heart. 
(viii) What is the main focus of Russell's 'Philosophy and Politics'?
Ans.  The main focus of Russell's "Philosophy and Politics" is the disastrous political consequences of Hegel's philosophy and the merits of Lock's philosophy of empiricism. Russell says that empiricist liberalism is the only philosophy that can serve mankind's purposes in our times. 
(ix) Why does Russell favour the idea of world government?
Ans. Russell is a great believer in a single government for the whole world. In his essays "The Future of Mankind" and "Ideas That Have Helped Mankind", he insists that the world can be saved from wars and total extinction of the human race through the establishment of a world-government. 
(x) What is the difference between Hegel and Locke's philosophy?
Ans. Hegel philosophy is that true liberty consists in obedience to an arbitrary authority, free speech is an evil, absolute monarchy is good, war is desirable, and an international organization for the peaceful settlement of disputes would be a misfortune. Whereas Locke's philosophy offers a theoretical justification of democracy. It preaches religious toleration, representative institutions, and the limitations of governmental power by the system of checks and balances. 
(xi) What does Russell suggest for the Middle East?
Ans. Russell expresses his opposition to what he views as European imperialism in the Middle East. In the Middle East, Russell suggests that the West should avoid opposing Arab nationalism, and proposes the creation of a United Nations as peacekeeping force to guard Israel's frontiers to ensure that Israel is protected from aggression and prevented from committing it. 
(xii) How would you define 'empiricism'?
Ans. Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. John Locke is a leading philosopher of British empiricism. 
(xiii) Interpret 'Change is one thing, progress is another'.
Ans. This line is from Russell's essay "Philosophy and Politics". In this line he says that 'change' and 'progress' are two different things. 'Change is scientific and 'progress' is ethical; 'change' is indubitable whereas 'progress' is a matter of controversy. 
(xiv) What are the three possible scenarios for the future of mankind?
Ans. Russell begins his essay, "The Future of Mankind", with three possible scenarios for the future of mankind. The first scenario is the extinction of the human race with the third world war. The second scenario is that the world would revert to a state of barbarism. And the third scenario is the unification of the world under one united power. 
(xv) Why does Russell want a safe and prosperous future of mankind?
Ans. Russell wants a safe and prosperous future of mankind because he is a humanist. His pacifism, championship of democracy and moral fervour prove that he has the good of mankind at heart.


Russell As a Philosopher

Answer the following questions. 
(i) Who is Edward Said?
Ans. Edward Wadie Said (1 November 1935 - 25 September 2003) was Palestinian American literary theorist and public intellectual who helped found the critical-theory field of post-colonialism. 
(ii) Why is Edward Said famous?
Ans. As a cultural critic, Edward Said is famous for his book "Orientalism", one of the most influential scholarly books of the 20th century. He is also famous as the founder of the academic field of postcolonial studies. 
(iii) What are the nicknames of Edward Said?
Ans. The full name of Edward Said is "Edward Wadie Said". He has two famous nicknames; Ed Wadie and Ed Said
(iv) What is the source of 'Culture and Imperialism'?
Ans. "Culture and Imperialism" is indebted to Grasmsci in several respects, even if less obviously than The World, the Text and the Critic. Grasmsci unfinished essay on the southern question is one of Said's points of reference as a work that sets the stage for the critical attention given in the Prison Notebooks to the "territorial, spatial and geographical foundations of life."
(v) What is the main focus of Edward Said in 'Introduction to Culture and Imperialism'?
Ans. The main focus of Edward Said in "Introduction to Culture and Imperialism" is the modern Western empires of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. He wants to describe a more general pattern of relationships between the modern metropolitan west and its overseas territories. His aim is to set works of art of the imperialist and post-colonial eras into their historical context. 
(vi) When was 'Culture and Imperialism' published?
Ans.  "Culture and Imperialism" is a collection of essays by Edward Said published in 1993. It followed his highly influential "Orientalism", published in 1978. 
(vii) What is the connection between 'Culture and Imperialism' and 'Orientalism'?
Ans. "Culture and Imperialism" is a collection of essays by Edward Said published in 1993. Said attempts to trace the connection between imperialism and culture in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. It followed his highly influential "Orientalism", published in 1978. Said conceived of "Culture and Imperialism" as an attempt to "expand the argument" of "Orientalism".
(viii) What are different attitudes towards culture according to Edward Said?
Ans. According to Edward there are two types of attitudes towards culture. One that considers culture as a concept that includes refining and elevating element, each society's reservoir of best that has been known and thought. The other is the aggressive, protectionist attitude viewing culture as a source of identity that differentiates between 'us' and 'them', and power with which we can combat the influences of the foreign cultures. 
(ix) What is imperialism?
Ans. Imperialism is a type of advocacy of Empire. It is a policy of extending a country's power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means. Edward Said uses the term more broadly to describe any system of domination and subordination organized with an imperial center and periphery. 
(x) What damages has imperialism caused in the past?
Ans. Imperialism has resulted the mixture of cultures and identities on a world scale. For centuries the foreign imperialists have behaved in the underdeveloped world like nothing more than criminals. U.S. military intervention in the Third World has occurred every year between 1945 and 1967.
(xi) What is the relationship between culture and imperialism of the West?
Ans. The relationship between culture and imperialism of the West is direct and dynamic.  The culture is not free from prejudices; it is also not objective and neutral. The vocabulary of classic 19th century imperial culture - "inferior", "subject races", "subordinate peoples", "dependency", and "authority" - recurred and repeated in the great writings of British and French - is a part of the story of relationship between culture and imperialism. 
(xii) What does Edward Said mean by civilization?
Ans. Civilization means the betterment of ways of living, making Nature bend to fulfill the needs of humankind. It also includes organizing societies into politically well-defined groups working collectively for improved conditions of life in matter of food, dress, communication, and so on. 
(xiii) What is colonialism?
Ans. Colonialism is the establishment of a colony in one territory by a political power from another territory, and the subsequent maintenance, expansion, and exploitation of that colony. 
(xiv) What is post colonialism?
Ans. Post-colonialism is an academic discipline featuring methods of intellectual discourse that analyze, explain, and respond to the cultural legacies of colonialism and imperialism. Post-colonialism in literature includes the study of theory and literature as it relates to the colonizer-colonized experience. 
(xv) What are literary illusions?
Ans. A literary illusion is a brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literary or political significance. It does not describe in detail the person or thing to which it refers. For example, "Don't act like a Romeo in front of her." - "Romeo" is a reference to Shakespeare's Romeo, a passionate lover of Juliet, in "Romeo and Juliet."


Influence of Post Colonialism on Edward Said


Answer the following questions. 
(i) What is uniquely American about Whitman's poetry?
Ans. Whitman wrote about America, its people, and its landscape in expansive free-verse form. He established a uniquely American voice in poetry, entirely separate from the Anglophile-inspired reverence for English poetic styles and forms. Whitman's open-armed, free-verse celebrations of America's vastness of resources, opportunities, people, and possibilities, is distinctly American verse.
(ii) What, in Whitman's view, is the function of poetry?
Ans. Whitman, like Poe and Coleridge, is mystic and transcendental in his theory of poetry. Unlike them, he is an arch-rebel in poetic practice. Under the influence of the Romantic movement in literature and art, Whitman held the theory that the chief function of the poet was to express his own personality in his verse. Whitman often casts himself as the main character in his poems.
(iii) Describe Whitman's conception of the soul and the body.
Ans. The soul and the body are inextricably linked for Whitman. While the soul is the ultimate repository of the self, and the connection between souls is the highest order of relating, the body is the vessel that allows the soul to experience the world. Therefore the body is just as important.
(iv) What kinds of structures does Whitman use in his poetry?
Ans. Two of the most important structures in Whitman's poetry are the list and the anecdote. He avoids structures like rhyme because he wants to show that his is a truly American poetry, one that is fresh and new, and not indebted to previous poets from other countries.
(v) What kind of vocabulary does Whitman use in his poetry?
Ans. Whitman's vocabulary borrows from these disciplines; anatomy, astronomy, carpentry and construction, military and war terms, nautical terms and terms related to the sea, business and professions, flora and fauna of America.
(vi) What are major themes in Whitman's poetry?
Ans. Democracy as a way of life, the cycle of growth and death, the beauty of the individual, democratic nature of poetry, the body and soul, the natural world, war, and eroticism are the major themes of Whitman's poetry.
(vii) What do plants symbolize in Whitman's poetry?
Ans. Throughout Whitman's poetry, plant life symbolize both growth and multiplicity. Rapid, regular plant growth also stands in for the rapid, regular expansion of the population of the United States.
(viii) What is the theme of 'There was a Child Went Forth'?
Ans. This poem expresses the poet's identification of his consciousness with all objects and forms, and the list of things which he himself identifies with is large and comprehensive and is a good example of Whitman's catalogs. The continual process of becoming is at the heart of the poem.
(ix) What is the theme of 'I Saw in Louisiana a Live-Oak Growing'?
Ans. Even though we may have people in our lives, they can always be taken away. Physical love is as elementary as the oak tree itself, but its luxuriant growth is an organic metaphor for the development of manly love in the region of the spirit.
(x) What are the major themes of 'One's-Self I Sing'?
Ans. The poem delves into the themes of the self, the all-encompassing "I", sexuality, democracy, the human body, and what it means to live in the modern world.
(xi) What is the theme of 'Poets to Come'?
Ans. Whitman's consciousness of the inadequacy of language to express the full extent of his thought is revealed in this poem. His expectation that the future poets will interpret his work for posterity clearly shows that he views the poet as a seer and a builder of the bridge spanning time.
(xii) What is the theme of 'O Captain! My Captain!'?
Ans. The primary theme of the poem is masculine love; the speaker loves his captain as his own father. Other themes are admiration, patriotism and suffering.
(xiii) What is the theme of 'To a Stranger'?
Ans. The speaker uses this poem as a silent address to a stranger passing by him on the street. The relationship between body and soul is the major theme of the poem. Whitman also invokes the theme of democratic self by leaving the stranger's gender indeterminate.
(xiv) What is the theme of 'Shut Not Your Doors'?
Ans. In this poem, Whitman is by far identifying himself as a writer of writers. He puts himself on a soap box and pats himself on the back. This poem is a good way to express a writer's feelings about his own writings.
(xv) What is the theme of 'The Carols'? 
Ans. In this poem the speaker describes various "carols" that arise from different figures in the American working class as people go about their work. The theme of the poem is individuality, productivity and happiness in one's station in life. The poem also exemplifies the theme of musicality in Whitman's poetry.


Critical Appreciation of "O Captain! My Captain!

Answer the following questions. 
(i) What are the basic themes in the poetry of John Ashbery?
Ans. John Ashbery's poetry is mainly about the play and process of the mind interacting with the world. He is also concerned with the process of artistic creation and appreciation. His themes are numerous since the mind perceiving subjects is numerous. Other themes include, love, loss, alienation, the everyday, painting, art, emotions, home eroticism, and emotions etc.
(ii) What are the major elements of modernity in John Ashbery's Poetry?
Ans. John Ashbery is chiefly known for the artistic perfection of his poetry. Stream of consciousness, impressionism, expressionism, subjectivity, symbolism, simple language and philosophical touch are the major elements of modernity in Jonh Ashbery's poetry.
(iii) What is the symbolic significance of the title 'Melodic Trains'?
Ans. The title "Melodic Trains" suggests that it is about a train journey. It sets a tone of harmony and concord. The trains are melodic not because the round of the wheels is so rhythmic, but because Ashbery sees all passengers as his brothers. There is also the rhythm of the thought process.
(iv) What is the main theme of 'Melodic Trains'?
Ans. The main theme of "Melodic Trains" by John Ashbery is that life is a perpetual journey into the unconscious regions of human mind, which brings up a new perspective each time an activity is stirred.
(v) What are the symbolic elements in 'Melodic Trains'?
Ans. Train, enameled fingernails of the little girl, toy wristwatch of the little girl, stations, passengers at stations, taxi, and tower of Pisa are the major symbolic elements in "Melodic Trains".
(vi) How is journey of train similar to journey of mind? (Melodic Trains)
Ans. The journey in real train is paralleled by a symbolic train of thoughts and melodies, poetic ideas running through the mind. Life is a perpetual journey into the unconscious regions of human mind, which brings up a new station each time an activity is stirred.
(vii) What do the stations of train symbolize in 'Melodic Trains'?
Ans. Stations symbolize a temporary stopover. They are a midpoint between past and future of our lives. They give us a sense of transition, of being between worlds, between experiences. The human gathering at stations is like chorus singing about various stages of the journey of life.
(viii) What is the main theme of the poem 'The Painter'?
Ans. The main theme of the poem "The Painter" by John Ashbery is that innovator, modern and creative artists are crucified by the traditional and conventional people.
(ix) How does Ashbery define art in 'The Painter'?
Ans. Ashbery's conception of art in "The Painter" is like that of a child's prayer which is a direct relationship between the artist and the art like that of a prayee to God. He says that objective representation of reality must be the basis of art. Soul, spirit, vitality of life, and the essence of reality should be the features of art.
(x) What is Ashbery's wish in 'The Painter'?
Ans. Ashbery was himself a painter. In this poem, he wishes to paint an abstract idea. He wants artistic perfection of his painting. Canvas is a symbol of life, he wants to paint colours of truth on it, which is beyond his reach.
(xi) What are the major symbols in 'The Painter'?
Ans. "The Painter" is a highly symbolic poem. It is packed with symbols that it seems like an allegory. The major symbols are; the sea, the buildings, the painter and canvas.
(xii) What does the sea symbolize in 'The Painter'?
Ans. The sea in "The Painter" is a symbol of creativity and the unexplored depths of human consciousness. It also resents the vitality and essence or life, with has long been ignored.
(xiii) Why does the poet use the image of Tower of Pisa in 'Melodic Trains'?
Ans. The poet uses the image of Tower of Pisa to reflect the modern man's psychological complexities.
(xiv) Trace political and religious allegory in 'The Painter'?
Ans. The pathetic state of the painter lends political and religious interpretations of the poem. The line "Try using the brush for a means to an end" shows the selfishness of the political gains. The word 'crucify' has religious connotation so the poem becomes a religious allegory too.
(xv) Why does the painter not paint anything on the canvas? 
Ans. The poem presents the situation of an artist who wants to paint the sea. He wants that "nature, not art, might usurp the canvas". The artist is unable to present reality and so "there was never any paint on the canvas".


Critical Appreciation of "Melodic Trains"

Answer the following questions. 
(i) What is trilogy?
Ans. Trilogy is a group of three literary works that together compose a larger narrative. Early types of trilogy resulted from the common practice of Athenian playwrights, who would submit tragedies as groups of three plays for performance in the Dionysia. Examples include the Oresteia of Aeschylus and Sophocles' trilogy of Oedipus Rex, Antigone, and Oedipus at Colona. 
(ii) In what ways does mourning become Electra?
Ans. "Mourning" means the expression of sorrow for someone's death. The Mannon family is marred with deaths. Whereas "Electra" is the name of the sister of Orestes in Aeschylus's tragedy "The Oresteia", and that the play was all about the destruction of a particular family. So "Electra" refers to Lavinia in the play who is left alone after the destruction of her family.  
(iii) What is the historical context of 'Mourning Becomes Electra'?
Ans. Born in 1888, Eugene O'Neill's life spanned some of the most important events of contemporary history. The issues related to democracy and materialism figure prominently in his plays. "Mourning Becomes Electra" explore the problems confronting American society, particularly rampant materialism, loss of individuality, lack of spiritual values, incest, sin and guilt. 
(iv) Why has O'Neil used myth and legend as symbols in his play?
Ans.  O'Neil has used myth and legend as symbols in his play "Mourning Becomes Electra" to give a broad and universal significance to his theme. He has used the Electra legend to achieve an approximation to the Greek sense of fate, such as would appeal to modern audiences. 
(v) How does O'Neil symbolize hair and eyes in 'Mourning Becomes Electra'?
Ans. If the mask like faces in "Mourning Becomes Electra" establish the puritan male tradition, the woman's hair and eyes symbolize the opposing 'pagan' one. The richness of the hair of Christine and Lavinia points to primitive and vigorous sensuality. The eyes of the women link them with the islands. 
(vi) What is the significance of the 'Blessed Islands'?
Ans. O'Neill has interwoven the "Blessed Islands" in "Mourning Becomes Electra" -- influenced by Melville's Typee -- as the motif of an unattainable pipe-dream. The Blessed Islands show the desire for love, harmony, and sexual freedom of all the protagonists in the play. They are the counterpart of puritanism and civilization. However, these islands do not really offer an escape. 
(vii) What is the meaning of theme song 'Shenandoah'?
Ans. 'Shenandoah' is a traditional American folk song. It is the theme song in the play "Mourning Becomes Electra". It occurs six times in the trilogy. The chanty may be regarded as an equivalent of the choral songs in Greek tragedy. Some believe that the song refers to the river of the same name while others suggest that it is of Native American origin, for it tells the tale of Sally, the daughter of the Indian Chief Shenandoah. 
(viii) Who are the haunted in 'Mourning Becomes Electra'?
Ans. Almost all the characters are the haunted. They are emotionally death, the house is a tomb. Death seems to be haunting everybody in the Mannon family, and it catches up to all of them one way or another. Ezra Mannon and Adam Brant are murdered. Christine and Orin commit suicide. Lavinia decides to punish herself by living alone. 
(ix) Why are the Mannons driven to their self destructive behaviour?
Ans. The Mannons  in "Mourning Becomes Electra" are driven to their self-destructive behaviour by inner needs, forbidden love, and compulsions they can neither understand nor control. 
(x) Why do every Mannon in 'Mourning Becomes Electra' seek escape from the real world?
Ans. All Mannons in "Mourning Becomes Electra" seek refuge and escape from the harsh realities of the real world by dreaming of starting a new life on a South Pacific Island. They want to escape from their inner needs, forbidden love, and compulsions they can neither understand nor control.  
(xi) Why does Lavinia say, 'I hate love!'?
Ans. Lavinia is a queer girl who was not given any attention by her mother during her childhood. Now she is turned indifferent to the social, ethical and moral behaviour of the human mind. When Peter asks her if Orin really loves his sister Hazel, she simply replies: "I hate love!" Lavinia lives up to this statement throughout the play. 
(xii) What kind of relationship does Lavinia have with her mother?
Ans. The relationship between Lavinia and her mother Christine is a complete lack of understanding. Between the mother and daughter, there is a competition for the love of Christine's son/Lavinia's brother, Orin. Lavinia sees Christine's new love as a betrayed of her mother's relationship with her father. She also harbors a deep desire for revenge upon her mother for killing her father. 
(xiii) Why does Lavinia hate her mother?
Ans. Lavinia hates her mother for many reasons. Firstly, she was not given any attention by her mother during her childhood. Secondly, she is extremely possessive for her father. Thirdly, she hates her for her adulterous acts in New York with Adam. Above all, she abhors her mother because she has poisoned her father. 
(xiv) Why does Lavinia hate Adam?
Ans. Lavinia is a puritan moralist in her attitude towards Christine and Adam. She hates Adam on two counts. Firstly, she considers that he is the son of a low nurse. Secondly, she hates him for his adulterous acts in New York with her mother, Christine.
(xv) Why is Lavinia instead of committing suicide prepared to meet her punishment by living a solitary life?
Ans. Convinced that the Mannon blood is tainted with evil, Lavinia resolves to spend the rest of her days atoning for her guild in the Mannon house. Since there is no one left to punish her, she decides to punish herself by living alone in the old house with the ghosts of her ancestors.


Character Sketch of Electra

Answer the following questions.
(i) What is a crucible?
Ans. A crucible is a container that can withstand very high temperatures and is used for metal, glass, and pigment production as well as a number of modern laboratory processes. It's a little container full of violent reactions. It is a good metaphor for the violent hysteria that the little village of Salem contained during the witch trials.
(ii) What is an overture? Why does Miller use on in 'The Crucible'?
Ans. An overture is a dramatic instrumental musical opening, and also a prelude. In "The Crucible", the first Act is named "An Overture" because it is the beginning of a series of dramatic events that will occur throughout the course of the play. It provides relevant and interesting background information on the events that occurred during the Salem witch trials.
(iii) Why did Arthur Miller write "The Crucible"?
Ans. The McCarthy hearings, which sought to root out communists in the U.S. government during the early 1950s inspired Arthur Miller to write "The Crucible". However, the most obvious reason Arthur wrote "The Crucible" is because he had a story to tell. Without that, he would not have been inspired to write.
(iv) Why does Miller open Act IV of 'The Crucible' with a scene of madness?
Ans. By opening Act IV with its chilling, yet pitiful scene of madness among the prisoners, as seen especially in Tituba's ravings, Miller powerfully conveys the depth of the misery, suffering, and insanity wrought by the witchcraft trails. This scene also creates a dark atmosphere and a somber tone of the tragic final events that are about to unfold.
(v) Why was Abigail dismissed from her job at the Proctor's house?
Ans. Abigail was dismissed from her job at the Proctor's house when Elizabeth discovered her affair with her husband John Proctor.
(vi) What does fire symbolize  in 'The Crucible'?
Ans. The play's title is a reference to fire, in that a "crucible" is a vessel made to withstand extremely high temperatures. The symbol of fire is a potent one for this play. It symbolizes wild emotions, emotions suppressed, lust, sexual undertones, sexual desires, chaos, vengeance, deceit and destruction.
(vii) Interpret 'Them that will not confess will hang'.
Ans. This line is from "The Crucible" spoken by Danforth when some people were about to be hanged for witchcraft.  People were asked to sign a crime list as a confession to save their lives. John refused to confess to something he had not done. The statement is ironic because none of them actually had committed witchcraft. It means the lairs would live and the honest would be hanged.
(viii) How does Abigail thrives on the attention of all in the court and become the centre of excitement?
Ans. Abigail thrives on the attention of all in the court and becomes the centre of excitement by pretending witch hunting.
(ix) What does Abigail do when suspicion that she might be pretending falls on her?
Ans. When Abigail is suspected of pretending, she denies it and actually threatens Deputy Governor Danforth, the man presiding over these proceedings. She says to him that he could be the next accused by her, that he is not exempt from the Devil's power of hers. Moreover, Abigail turns against Mary Warren, claiming that the girl has sent her spirit out.
(x) Why does Abigail accuse Proctor's wife?
Ans. Abigail accuses Proctor's wife of witchcraft, most likely because she is in love with John Proctor. Accusing Elizabeth of witchcraft may get Elizabeth out of the picture and make room for her. A second reason for accusing her of witchcraft includes protection. If John's own wife is accused, he will be less inclined to condemn all the girls.
(xi) What are Abigail's feelings towards John Proctor?
Ans. Abigail is in love with John Proctor. When she worked for the Proctors, she and John had a brief affair. She has brooded over her sexual encounter with Proctor for seven months. The more she thinks about the affair, the more Abigail convinces herself that Proctor loves her but cannot express his love because of his wife, Elizabeth.
(xii) Why does John Proctor confess his act of adultery?
Ans. Proctor confesses his act of adultery with Abigail to defend his wife, Elizabeth; Abigail has a motive for wanting to accuse Elizabeth of witchcraft. Moreover, he wants to discredit Abigail in the eyes of the court.
(xiii) Why has Proctor refused to let Parris baptize his third child?
Ans. Proctor has serious issues with Parris. He thinks that Parris is overly concerned with money; he preaches about getting golden candlesticks, and wants the mortgage to the meetinghouse. He does not really think that Parris is a good representative of God so he refuses to let Parris baptize his third child.
(xiv) How has Proctor earned his death?
Ans. "The Crucible" ends with John Proctor marching off to a martyr's death. By refusing to lie and confess to witchcraft, he sacrifices his life in the name of truth. In fact, Proctor has in some way regained his goodness. Thus he has earned his death by asserting his individuality against the authority of the court.
(xv) Why is Cheever both astonished and afraid when he finds the puppet with the needle in it? 
Ans. Cheever has not once doubted the Proctors. He did not believe Abigail's story that Elizabeth's spirit stabbed her in the stomach. When he finds the poppet, he is astonished because it is evidence enough for him to believe that Abigail was telling the truth and Elizabeth is a witch. He is afraid both by the thought of what will happen to her and the thought of how rampant the witchcraft in his own town.


Major Thematic Concerns in "The Crucible"

Answer the following questions.
(i) What is the meaning of the title 'A Farewell to Arms'?
Ans. There are two straightforward interpretations of the title "A Farewell to Arms", with a pun on the word "Arms". The hero, Frederick Henry, bids farewell to 'arms' as in weapons, and also, when Catherine dies, to the loving 'arms' of a human being.
(ii) What is Hemingway's opinion about war?
Ans. Hemingway thinks that war is a setting in which the qualities of discipline, competence and masculinity are constantly on display. However, war is a senseless waste of life. It is a fundamentally unjust atrocity from which people want to escape at all costs. Moreover, victory and defeat are meaningless terms.
(iii) How does love affect the characters' perception of war?
Ans. Lovers hate war. As the love between Henry and Catherine grows stronger and more legitimate, Henry abandons the army. Lovers nurture a desire of home and structured relations, therefore they dislike war which tends to break down the normally held structures of traditional relationships, to the point where doctrines such as marriage lose meaning and prostitution becomes the order of the day.
(iv) What is the role of foreshadowing in 'A Farewell to Arms'?
Ans. Foreshadowing is a literary device in which a writer gives an advance hint of what is to come later in the story. The role of foreshadowing in 'A Farewell to Arms' is to build anticipation in the minds of readers about what might happen next and thus adding dramatic tension to the story. For example, rain has been used to foreshadow bad events in the future.
(v) What kind of weather dominates the novel 'A Farewell to Arms'?
Ans. Rainy weather dominates the novel 'A Farewell to Arms'. Rain symbolizing bad events and death is presented to the reader in the first chapter and is repeated throughout the entire novel. Although snowy weather has also been presented, it is the dominant one.
(vi) What do lowlands and mountains symbolize in 'A Farewell to Arms'?
Ans. The novel is crowded with the description of places. They all have their symbolism in the novel. Among the places, the lowlands and mountains are two important symbols in the story. The lowlands symbolize distraction, corruption, death and war. And the mountains symbolize peace, happiness, family, love and purity.
(vii) What does wine symbolize in 'A Farewell to Arms'?
Ans. Like everything in the novel, wine is a complicated business. Most of the men in the novel drink wine constantly. And often, when they do, wine seems to represent survival. Wine also represents a momentary respite from the pressure of war. Moreover, wine symbolizes spring, rebirth, art, fertility, sexual freedom and orgiastic divine ecstasy.
(viii) What are the major conflicts in 'A Farewell to Arms'?
Ans. (i) Love and war are a dangerous combination.
(ii) Henry's love for Catherine cannot quell his innate restlessness.
(iii) Reconciliation with reality is an unattainable as reconciliation with inner desire.
(ix) What is the 'Lost Generation' in 'A Farewell to Arms'?
Ans. The "Lost Generation" was the generation that came of age during World War I. The term was popularized by Hemingway, who used it as one of two contrasting epigraphs for his novel "The Sun Also Rises". In "A Farewell to Arms", Hemingway describes "lost generation" through the character of Frederic Henry who thinks war is a senseless waste of life.
(x) Interpret 'I'm not brave anymore darling. I'm all broken. They've broken me.'
Ans. Catherine experiences a protracted and agonizing childbirth in the hospital. Henry encourages her to be brave but she is dejected because she is broken by 'they'. It is not clear who the 'they' is that she is talking about. Perhaps she is talking about people in her past, of whom no one knows. 'They' could be Catherine's personification of the abstract forces working against her.
(xi) How is Frederic Henry?
Ans. Fredrick Henry is the narrator and protagonist of the novel "A Farewell to Arms" by Hemingway. He is a young American ambulance driver in the Italian army during World War I. He displays courage in battle, but his selfless motivations undermine all sense of glory and heroism. His life lacks real passion until he meets the beautiful Catherine Barkley.
(xii) Why is Frederic Henry in the ambulance service instead of a combat unit like the soldier from Pittsburgh?
Ans.  "A Farewell to Arms" is semi-autobiographical novel. When Hemingway turned eighteen he tried to enlist in the army, but was deferred because of poor vision. When he heard the Red Cross was taking volunteers as ambulance drivers in World War I. he quickly signed up. That is why the hero of Hemingway i.e. Frederic Henry is in the ambulance service instead of a combat unit.
(xiii) What type of rifle does Frederic has? What country is it from?
Ans. Frederic has a sniper rifle. It is a man-portable, high precision, shoulder-fired rifle used to ensure more accurate placement of bullets at longer rangers than other small arms. The rifle of Frederic is from Austria.
(xiv) Why does Frederic Henry plunge into the river The Tagliamento?
Ans. Frederic is arrested by Italian army, tied to a tree and about to be shot when he breaks free and escapes to the relative safety of the water. He plunges into Tagliamento river, where he hold onto a log. Fredric's plunge into the river is seen by many as a baptism.
(xv) How is Henry wounded after he crawls out of the river? 
Ans. When Henry crawls out of the river, he attempts to hide on a train to Milan. In the attempt, he cuts his head.


Frederic Henry As a Typical Hemingway Hero

Answer the following questions.
(i) What is the symbolic significance of the title 'Jazz'?
Ans. Jazz is called Jazz because it is structured on a little musical form called ... Jazz. The novel has alternating character voices that act like solos, repeating refrains that keep it flowing in one general direction, a feeling of dissonance and harmony at the same dang time -- all of which are attributes of a musical form called Jazz.
(ii) Tell with reference to Jazz, what is Harlem Renaissance?
Ans. The Harlem Renaissance was the name given to the cultural, social, and artistic explosion that took place in Harlem between the end of World War I and the middle of the 1930s. During this period Harlem was a cultural center, drawing black writers, artists, musicians, photographers, poets, and scholars.
(iii) Why was the Jazz music called the devil's music?
Ans. The reason why jazz was called "the devil's music" was because "Jazz" used to be a slang word associated with sex. Also, jazz originally came out of the brothels. So the more "wholesome" members of society did not want anything to do with it.
(iv) What is the effect of Jazz on the lives of poor people?
Ans. Music is an art, entertainment and medicine for the soul and body. It is intrinsic to all cultures. Jazz was invented by Blacks and made for the poor people. Faced with racism, discrimination and segregation, the poor black people have always found comfort and a sense of peace in Jazz music.
(v) Define feminism.
Ans. Feminism is a range of movements and ideologies that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve equal political, economic, cultural, personal, and social rights for women. This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment. A feminist advocates or supports the rights and equality of women.
(vi) Interpret 'Don't ever think I fell for you, or fell over you. I din't fall in love, I rose in it.'
Ans. This line is from Toni Morrison's novel "Jazz". In this line, Joe Trace addresses Dorcas directly in his imagination. Dorcas is already dead, but his is explaining how he felt and still feels about her. He does not regret the relationship because he freely chose it.
(vii) Interpret 'When they fall in love with a city, it is forever and it is like forever.'
Ans. The context here is the arrival of Joe and Violet in Harlem in 1906, when they arrived as part of the great migration north of black people, who were escaping the racism of the South. They all fell in love with Harlem as a place where the possibilities for them seem endless. So their love for Harlem will last forever.
(viii) Interpret 'A son ain't what a woman say. A son is what a man do.'
Ans. This line is, in fact, Henry's ultimatum that Golden Gray intends to live as his son, the young man will have to become less of a prince, accept the physical rigors of rural life and self-identify as a black person. This line also suggests that masculine identity wholly depends on man's ability to act, to exercise his will.
(ix) Who is Violet?
Ans. Violet is a fifty-six year old woman living in Harlem with her husband Joe. She is nicknamed "Violent" after she invades Dorcas' funeral to dishonor the girl's face with a knife. An orphan raised by her grandmother in rural Virginia, Violet herself has no children and, after several miscarriages, she longs for a child.
(x) Why does Violet release her encaged birds?
Ans. Violet releases her encaged birds after Dorcas dies. She rejects what she holds dear, both in terms of the birds and in terms of her relationship with Joe.
(xi) Why does Violet plan to get herself a boyfriend?
Ans. Violet's husband Joe had a young girlfriend named Dorcas whom Joe killed at a party. Violet is mean enough and good looking enough to think that even without hips or youth she can punish Joe by getting herself a boyfriend in her own house. She thinks it will dry his tears up and give her some satisfaction as well.
(xii) Who is Joe Trace?
Ans. Joe Trace is Violet's husband. He is a good looking man in his late fifties. He works hard, shuttling between a job as a waiter and a cosmetic salesman. He loves his wife but is hurt when she closes herself off from him because of her depression. A sympathetic character, Joe is nonetheless a murderer and adulterer, cheating his wife and then killing his lover.
(xiii) Name the parents of Joe Trace.
Ans. No one knows the real names of Joe's parents. When Joe is in school, he is asked to supply a last name for himself and he comes up with Trace because his adoptive mother has told him "O honey (your parents) disappeared without a trace." Joe's mother is rumored to live around the town of Vienna, Virginia and is named Wild.
(xiv) Why is there tension between Joe and Violet?
Ans. Joe and Violet are husband and wife. However, there is always tension between their relationship. The main reason is the presence of "other" in both characters. Moreover, both have grown up motherless. Violet's eccentricity and depression on one hand and Joe's love and murder of Docras on the other hand create tension between their relationship.
(xv) Why are Joe and Violet subject of ridicule in their community? 
Ans. Joe and Violet are ridiculed in their community because they are old black couple. Both have grown up motherless. Moreover, Violet makes little money as an unlicensed hairdresser, arriving at her clients' residences.


City As a Character in "Jazz"

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